President Volodymyr Zelensky and J.P. Morgan Bamkers

J.P. Morgan, the largest bank in the U.S., will be bringing their investment expertise to the Ukrainian war effort, reaching an agreement with President Volodymyr Zelensky to organize a fund to help rebuild the war-torn nation’s infrastructure, according to a report by Fox Business senior correspondent Charles Gasparino.

The bank “signed a memorandum of understanding” with Zelensky, reported Gasparino, that will help with “attracting private capital” in the amount of $20 to 30 billion for the rebuilding effort.

J.P. Morgan bankers met with Zelensky and his top officials last week to discuss plans for the fund, along with other ideas that included inviting tech CEOs like Tim Cookat Apple to discuss economic development opportunities, meeting with GOP lawmakers like Speaker Kevin McCarthy (R-CA) to work on calming Republican skepticism about funding the war effort, and creating “a bank administered by Wall Street firms that would make investments in oil refineries, roads, bridges and other pieces of economic infrastructure destroyed in Vladimir Putin’s year-long campaign to annex the country and rebuild the old Soviet Union,” according to sources familiar with the meetings’ discussions.

Blackrock’s Larry Fink Plans to Rebuild Ukraine for 750 Billion. Zelensky will use Blackrock to manage the $750 billion for the Ukraine rebuild

Blackrock’s Larry Fink Plans to Rebuild Ukraine for 750 Billion

Has Anyone Seen “Normal” Lately? It Seems To Be Lost!

It’s nowhere to be found!

It’s been gone so long I barely remember what it looks like!

Sometimes all I see is darkness and evil. It takes a special kind of energy and an unusual amount of effort to keep positive. Retaining the beauty around me in the forefront of my mind has never been so difficult. But I manage to do so most days. Thank God I’m still capable of seeing it. I know those who are not. I still have faith in humanity. I still believe there are enough good people in this world to see to it that we aren’t completely taken over by satanic, corrupt politicians and greedy bureaucrats, elites and the like. But I have to admit that there are many times I think that Hell has opened the gates and released all the evil spirits it once had locked up! Well, Hell needs to call them back home!

Honestly! There’s not a day that goes by that I don’t shake my head and think what on earth is going on? What is wrong with people? How did they get so twisted up? How did the world become so sideways? Some people seem to have lost their minds! They don’t even make sense anymore! And yes I’m referring to those with a extreme far left mindset. Those who are stuck in LaLa Land believing everything they hear on the mainstream media channels, falling for every hook, line and sinker. The problem is that they are determined to make sure we sink with them! I wish they would learn to swim on their own! I guess for the most part that ole saying that says… People don’t change, times do… is pretty accurate!

Pedophilia is being promoted as a natural sexual orientation that must be accepted. Parents who protect their children are called “haters”. Are you kidding me? What planet did these sick individuals drop off of? They need to go back to wherever they came from too! What happened to the meaning of “child abuse”?

Children are being indoctrinated to surgically alter their sex, without the consent of their parents. Can we just come back to reality here and understand that this is absolutely not acceptable and it’s cruelly unfair to our children? Not to mention it’s AGAIN “child abuse” on every level just like pedophilia is!

Sexual education is pushed into kindergarten and first grade, with a focus on homosexual education. NOT just NO but HELL NO! Let them be children! Let them play and free! They are not here for someone’s sick demented ideology and personal agenda to be used like a puppet! NO!

Males and females have been stripped of their dignity, identity and the heart and soul of the balance between the two is being shredded to pieces. Men are told it’s acceptable to dress like women, and vice versa. Children are being encouraged to decide what sex they are in spite of who they were born to be. This is mentally abusive and will create confusing, conflicting feelings and emotions as they continue to develop and will lead to unstable, unhealthy relationships, depression and anxiety as they grow into adulthood. WHAT IS WRONG WITH BEING WHO YOU ARE? Severe sexual discombobulated, confusion is affecting every aspect of society and is being bulldozed into our schools, workplaces, media outlets, organizations and religious institutions. To think this is okay is beyond terrifying.

Every year millions of children disappear, while investigators are uncovering vast international networks of child trafficking by high level officials. The government has allowed Foster Care Services, Adoption Agencies, Child Protection and Welfare Services to operate while hiding under the cruelty and abusive practices of child trafficking. Our government employees have gotten away with hideous acts against children and their crimes are slid under the rug. The Biden Administration is willingly allowing illegal immigrants into our country and using these people for profit and political gain. They have embraced the most ill, revolting, perilous, destructible practices of criminal cruelty against innocent individuals known to mankind. The consequences will be devastating and irreversible. How blind does society have to be to not see the truth when it’s glaring them straight in their eyes?

Effective cures for covid are being outlawed, and physicians who are saving the lives of their patients with these cures are being fired, and even arrested. Hospitals are being given incentives to follow deadly protocols and lie to patients. Big Pharma is being allowed to cause massive harm and death in society without any repercussions or accountability. The narrative just continues to replicate itself without any consequences to those causing harm. Some might conclude it is genocide. It’s at the very least crimes of humanity.

An experimental injection with undisclosed toxic contents, that alters the human DNA, is being forced onto all of humanity. People are dying right before our eyes. The government sees it. They know exactly what is happening and once again… NOT A WORD IS SPOKEN.

Cities were testing to limit the movement of people to 15 or 20 minutes from their homes. Unprecedented surveillance is being installed in these cities. Welcome to Communism. We might as well be in China. We all know how lockdowns worked out.

Billionaires gather at the World Economic Forum to plan the future of humanity. Their decisions profit them, while impoverishing everyone else. The WHO, WEF, UNICEF, and all the others are the most misleading agencies that exist today. Americans need to be paying attention to their agendas. They are very clear about their intentions and expectations of the nations involved.

Digital IDs will impose unprecedented tyranny, as only people who have had their umpteenth booster injection will be allowed to partake in society.

Digital currencies will only allow people to use banking services if they have the required social credit score. This score is determined by your level of compliance.

Chemicals are sprayed in the skies to block the sunlight and prevent global warming, while leading world scientists exclaim that climate change is a hoax.

Thousands of farmers are being forced to kill their livestock, while genetically modified insects are pushed as the new food source for humanity.

Energy prices in Europe have increased 5- to 20-fold overnight, destroying countless small businesses.

The UN and WEF state publicly that in the near future, cyborgs will rule over all of humanity, while A.I. will direct our lives.

Elitist billionaires are working on transplanting their minds into artificial carriers, to obtain immortality.

The WEF publicly states that soon governments will read our thoughts, emotions and dreams, which will be recorded 24/7.

The Chilean president stated on national TV that 5G has the ability to insert thoughts and feelings into the population.

World Domination

How governments use psychological manipulation to change human behavior

The official agenda for world domination by the World Economic Forum, the World Health Organization, the United Nations and their globalist allies (World Bank, IMF, BIS, BlackRock, etc.) – this is the greatest threat to humanity since the dawn of time.

Brian Gerrish is a former UK Royal Navy officer, specialized in the tracking of submarines, who is currently an investigative journalist and senior editor of the UK Column. On February 5,2022 he testified before a Grand Jury, along with one of his expert researchers, Debbie Evans, who was a government advisor at the Department of Health in the UK. They revealed documents evidencing something of grave concern: the governments are using applied psychology and hypnosis to create fear and anxiety in the population, with the goal of changing their behavior.

In a government document called “SAGE / SPI_B Covid Team Minutes” we read the following paragraph: 2. Perceived threat: A substantial number of people still do not feel personally threatened; (…) The perceived level of personal threat needs to be increased among those who are complacent, using hard-hitting emotional messaging. In other words, the fear mongering needs to be ramped up, in order to convince the population to comply with all the government tyranny. This was confirmed by a leaked video recording of the Zoom meeting of an African government official, who told his staff: “We must ramp up the covid deaths in order to prolong the lockdowns.”This leaked footage can be seen in the documentary “BUSTED – Media Crimes Exposed“. In that video you can also see a technical director of CNN admit to an undercover journalist from Project Veritas, that they deliberately display covid deaths to create fear in the population. Debbie Evans, the former British government advisor for the Department of Health, also reveals how the National Health Service has been infiltrated by financial “change agents”, who shift the focus from patients to profit. This was also done using psychological manipulation, that transformed the mindset of the NHS employees.

Use of fear to control behaviour in Covid crisis was ‘totalitarian’, admit scientists

The Scientific Advisory Group for Emergencies (SAGE)

In 2020 SAGE was activated to advise on the UK government’s response to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic.

About SAGE and COVID-19.

View the minutes and papers supporting the government response to COVID-19.


Toddbrook reservoir, 2019

In August 2019 SAGE was activated in response to the potential breach of Toddbrook reservoir.

See the minutes.

Ebola outbreak, 2018

In 2018, a Precautionary SAGE (Pre-SAGE) was activated in response to the Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo between May 2018 and May 2019. A Pre-SAGE can be formed to look at emerging hazards and assess risks when COBR has not been activated.

See the minutes.

Zika outbreak, 2016

In 2016 a Precautionary SAGE (Pre-SAGE) was activated to advise on the Zika virus outbreak. A Pre-SAGE can be formed to look at emerging hazards and assess risks when COBR has not been activated.

See the minutes.

Nepal earthquake, 2015

In 2015 SAGE was activated to advise on the Nepal earthquake.

See the minutes.

Ebola outbreak, 2014

In 2014 SAGE was activated in response to the Ebola outbreak in West Africa.

See the minutes.

Winter flooding, 2013

In 2013 SAGE was activated in response to the UK winter flooding event between December 2013 and March 2014.

See the minutes.

Japan nuclear incident, 2011

In 2011 SAGE was activated to advise on the Fukushima nuclear emergency.

See the National Archives website for minutes.

Volcanic Ash emergency, 2010

In 2010 SAGE was activated following the eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland.

See the National Archives website for minutes.

Swine Flu pandemic, 2009

In 2009 SAGE was activated to provide scientific advice on the H1N1 (Swine Flu) pandemic between May 2009 and January 2010.

See the National Archives website for minutes.

The Scientific Advisory Group for Emergencies (SAGE) is convened to provide independent scientific advice to support decision-making in the Cabinet Office Briefing Room (COBR) in the event of a national emergency.

SAGE is an advisory group and does not make decisions or set policy. Its advice is limited to scientific matters and is a cross-disciplinary consensus view based on the best available evidence at the time.

Government considers a range of evidence when making decisions including economic, social, and broader environmental factors.

Members of Scientific Pandemic Influenza Group on Behaviour express regret about ‘unethical’ methods

Scientists on a committee that encouraged the use of fear to control people’s behaviour during the Covid pandemic have admitted its work was “unethical” and “totalitarian”.

Members of the Scientific Pandemic Influenza Group on Behaviour (SPI-B) expressed regret about the tactics in a new book about the role of psychology in the Government’s Covid-19 response.

SPI-B warned in March last year that ministers needed to increase “the perceived level of personal threat” from Covid-19 because “a substantial number of people still do not feel sufficiently personally threatened”.

The Mental Hygiene Movement

The Mental Hygiene Concept and Movement is nothing new. It’s been around as long as the WHO (World Health Organization) has been around. The concept of Mental Hygiene was developed to promote the idea that people who submit to the mindsets of the criminal elite are considered mentally healthy, while those who disagree must be silenced and, if possible, eradicated. It’s a criminal political system that uses applied psychology and has been unleashed on the public and the healthcare workers to change their thinking and behavior. This also happened in Nazi Germany.

Mr Morgan spoke to author Laura Dodsworth, who has spent a year investigating the Government’s tactics for her book A State of Fear

Ministers have faced repeated accusations that they ramped up the threat from the pandemic to justify lockdowns and coerce the public into abiding by them – a claim that will be examined by the forthcoming public inquiry into the pandemic response.

SPI-B is one of the sub-committees that advises the Scientific Advisory Group for Emergencies (Sage), led by Sir Patrick Vallance, the chief scientific adviser.

One SPI-B scientist told Ms Dodsworth: “In March [2020] the Government was very worried about compliance and they thought people wouldn’t want to be locked down. There were discussions about fear being needed to encourage compliance, and decisions were made about how to ramp up the fear. The way we have used fear is dystopian.

“The use of fear has definitely been ethically questionable. It’s been like a weird experiment. Ultimately, it backfired because people became too scared.”

Another SPI-B member said: “You could call psychology ‘mind control’. That’s what we do… clearly we try and go about it in a positive way, but it has been used nefariously in the past.”

One warned that “people use the pandemic to grab power and drive through things that wouldn’t happen otherwise… We have to be very careful about the authoritarianism that is creeping in”.

Another said: “Without a vaccine, psychology is your main weapon… Psychology has had a really good epidemic, actually.”

As well as overt warnings about the danger of the virus, the Government has been accused of feeding the public a non-stop diet of bad news, such as deaths and hospitalisations, without ever putting the figures in context with news of how many people have recovered, or whether daily death tolls are above or below seasonal averages.

Another member of SPI-B said they were “stunned by the weaponisation of behavioural psychology” during the pandemic, and that “psychologists didn’t seem to notice when it stopped being altruistic and became manipulative. They have too much power and it intoxicates them”.

Steve Baker, the deputy chairman of the Covid Recovery Group of Tory MPs, said: “If it is true that the state took the decision to terrify the public to get compliance with rules, that raises extremely serious questions about the type of society we want to become.”

“If we’re being really honest, do I fear that Government policy today is playing into the roots of totalitarianism? Yes, of course it is.”

Ministers have been accused of ramping up the threat from the pandemic to justify lockdowns

News media use fear to manipulate populations

Governments closely work with mainstream news media to control exactly what the public thinks and believes. A good synonym for news media is mind control. It’s essentially the same. The news controls the minds of the people.

Most people brainlessly believe anything they hear on the news

The secret to convince people to go along with insanity, is fear. Once you are able to make them afraid enough, they will do anything to find safety. Take covid, for example: a disease with a survival rate of 99.7%, similar to the seasonal flu. It is essentially the same pathogen: a coronavirus. There have been several coronaviruses in the world for many decades, and previously nobody ever cared. Every year millions worldwide die from the flu. It’s a part of life. People with weak immune systems and bad overall health are vulnerable to all kinds of illnesses. About 50 million people die yearly, from a variety of diseases. Here are just a few examples: 


1.5 million die of Alzheimer
1.6 million die of diabetes
6.2 million die of stroke
8.8 million die of heart disease
3.1 million die of lung disease
1.7 million die of lung cancer
1.4 million die of diarrhea
1.3 million die of tuberculosis
1.2 million die of liver damage
And so on.

This has always been the case and nobody ever freaks about it. Covid is one of the lesser lethal diseases known to man. Yet, the news media inflicted such terror on the minds of the masses, that many allowed their most basic rights and freedoms to be taken from them.

great reset lockdown

The entire world population was locked up in their homes for months, millions of small businesses were destroyed, nobody was allowed to visit their elderly parents, everyone had to keep distance from their fellow human, millions weren’t even allowed in their own garden or on the beach, everyone was forced to wear suffocating masks, and ultimately we stood in line to be injected with an experimental cocktail of undisclosed substances that had skipped essential safety testing. On top of that the public agreed to the installation of far-reaching systems of surveillance and control. All because the news had told the world to be terrified of a disease with a 99,79% survival rate.

The news media is capable of inflicting a worldwide psychosis, that causes humanity to do even the most absurd things.

For example driving around in their car – all by themselves – with a mask on. Or running in nature – with not a soul around – with a mask on. Or entering a restaurant with a mask, taking it off at the table, and putting it back on when going to the restroom. Even swimming out in the ocean, with a mask on…

swimming ocean face mask

In normal situations people consider this kind of irrational behavior an expression of insanity. But when the news media says we should do it to “stay safe” most people obey suit, unquestioningly. News media can put the masses in a full blown psychosis, where they shut off all common sense and unthinkingly comply with even the most absurd practices. Even injecting their children with untested cocktails of undisclosed substances, while children are at no risk for covid whatsoever.

The mediaWE LIE TO YOU!

The editor of one of Europe’s largest newspapers confessed that journalists worldwide are paid to “always lie to the public, and never tell the truth”. He reveals how news media is used to manipulate the people.

BUSTED! Media Crimes Exposed

Is it really all that crazy compared to history?

Let’s take a look

On this day February 14th




So as you can see, history speaks for itself. However, that brings me to the question of whether society will ever become alert enough, brave enough and willing to stand up for their rights and freedoms? There is a difference between right and wrong. I guess it depends on what side of the fence you’re standing on that determines the difference. And I suppose that is what makes the world so complicated and crazy at times.

Meanwhile… I’ll be standing with Kid Rock
Kid Rock quote

The Roots of the Concept of Mental Health and The Mental Hygiene Movement…


This paper reviews the origins of the current concept of mental health, starting from the mental hygiene movement, initiated in 1908 by consumers of psychiatric services and professionals interested in improving the conditions and the quality of treatment of people with mental disorders. The paper argues that, more than a scientific discipline, mental health is a political and ideological movement involving diverse segments of society, interested in the promotion of the human rights of people with mental disorders and the quality of their treatment.

The concept of mental health, given its polysemic nature and its imprecise borders, benefits from a historical perspective to be better understood. What today is broadly understood by “mental health” can have its origins tracked back to developments in public health, in clinical psychiatry and in other branches of knowledge.

Although references to mental health as a state can be found in the English language well before the 20th century, technical references to mental health as a field or discipline are not found before 1946. During that year, the International Health Conference, held in New York, decided to establish the World Health Organization (WHO) and a Mental Health Association was founded in London. Before that date, found are references to the corresponding concept of “mental hygiene”, which first appeared in the English literature in 1843, in a book entitled Mental hygiene or an examination of the intellect and passions designed to illustrate their influence on health and duration of life 1. Moreover, in 1849, “healthy mental and physical development of the citizen” had already been included as the first objective of public health in a draft law submitted to the Berlin Society of Physicians and Surgeons 2.

In 1948, the WHO was created and in the same year the first International Congress on Mental Health took place in London. At the second session of the WHO’s Expert Committee on Mental Health (September 11-16, 1950), “mental health” and “mental hygiene” were defined as follows 3: “Mental hygiene refers to all the activities and techniques which encourage and maintain mental health. Mental health is a condition, subject to fluctuations due to biological and social factors, which enables the individual to achieve a satisfactory synthesis of his own potentially conflicting, instinctive drives; to form and maintain harmonious relations with others; and to participate in constructive changes in his social and physical environment.”

However, a clear and widely accepted definition of mental health as a discipline was (and is) still missing. Significantly, the Dorland’s Medical Dictionary does not carry an entry on mental health, whereas the Campbell’s Dictionary of Psychiatry gives it two meanings: first, as a synonym of mental hygiene and second, as a state of psychological wellbeing. The Oxford English Dictionary defines mental hygiene as a set of measures to preserve mental health, and later refers to mental health as a state. These lexicographic concepts nonetheless, more and more mental health is employed in the sense of a discipline (e.g., sections/divisions in health ministries or secretaries, or departments in universities), with an almost perfect replacement of mental hygiene.

In addition, given this polysemic nature of mental health, its delimitation in relation to psychiatry (understood as the medical specialty concerned with the study, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders or diseases) is not always clear. There is a more or less widespread effort to set mental health at least aside from psychiatry and at most as an overarching concept with encompasses psychiatry.


The mental hygiene movement

The origin of the mental hygiene movement can be attributed to the work of Clifford Beers in the USA. In 1908 he published A mind that found itself 4, a book based on his personal experience of admissions to three mental hospitals. The book had a great repercussion and in the same year a Mental Hygiene Society was established in Connecticut. The term “mental hygiene” had been suggested to Beers by Adolf Meyer 5 and enjoyed a quick popularity thanks to the creation in 1909 of the National Commission of Mental Hygiene. From 1919 onwards, the internationalization of activities of this Commission led to the establishment of some national associations concerned with mental hygiene: in France 6 and South Africa 7 in 1920, in Italy 8 and Hungary 9in 1924. From these national associations the International Committee on Mental Hygiene was created and later superseded by the World Federation of Mental Health.

The mental hygiene movement, in its origins and reflecting Beers’ experience in mental hospitals, was primarily and basically concerned with the improvement of the care of people with mental disorders. In Beers’ own words: “When the National Committee was organized, in 1909, its chief concern was to humanize the care of the insane: to eradicate the abuses, brutalities and neglect from which the mentally sick have traditionally suffered.” 4.

It was at a later stage that the Committee enlarged its program to include the “milder forms of mental disability” and a greater concern with preventive work. The rationale behind this shift was the belief that “mental disorders frequently have their beginnings in childhood and youth and that preventive measures are most effective in early life”, and that environmental conditions and modes of living produce mental ill health.

By 1937, the US National Committee for Mental Hygiene stated that it sought to achieve its purposes by: a) promoting early diagnosis and treatment; b) developing adequate hospitalization; c) stimulating research; d) securing public understanding and support of psychiatric and mental hygiene activities; e) instructing individuals and groups in the personal application of mental hygiene principles; and f) cooperating with governmental and private agencies whose work touches at any point the field of mental hygiene.

Thus, the mental hygiene movement had initially a para-psychiatric nature, directing its efforts towards the improvement of psychiatric care. The inclusion of preventive activities among its interests did not distinguish it from psychiatry: the movement aimed at maximizing what was accepted and proposed by the most advanced psychiatrists of the epoch in the USA, most of whom followed a psychoanalytical orientation.

According to the group which launched it, the mental hygiene movement “visualized, not a single patient, but a whole community; and it considered each member of that community as an individual whose mental and emotional status was determined by definite causative factors and whose compelling need was for prevention rather than cure. The Mental Hygiene Movement, then, bears the same relation to psychiatry that the public-health movement, of which it forms a part, bears to medicine in general. It is an organized community response to a recognized community need.” 4. On the other hand, it was also stated that: “At the present time both psychiatrists and mental hygienists are more than ever conscious that their objectives are in fact identical and that each group needs the other for the fulfilment of their common task.” 4.

The World Health Organization

From its very beginning, the WHO has always had an administrative section specially dedicated to mental health, as an answer to requests from its Member States. The first Report of the WHO’s Director General 10, in its English version, refers to an administrative section called “Mental Health”. However, the French version of the same report calls it “Hygiène Mentale”. Well until the 1960s we find hygiène as the French translation of health in some WHO publications and in some instances we find also mental hygiene used interchangeably with mental health in the English version of some documents. The volume no. 9 of the WHO’s series Public Health Papers was published in 1961 in English with the title Teaching of Psychiatry and Mental Health 11, in 1962 in French with the title L’enseignement de la Psychiatrie et de l’Hygiène Mentale 12 and in 1963 in Spanish with the title Enseñanza de la Psiquiatria y de la Salud Mental 13.

In the preamble to the WHO Constitutions, it was stated that “health is a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” 14, a now widely quoted definition. This definition is clearly a holistic one, intended to overcome the old dichotomies of body vs. mind and physical vs. psychic. It is also a pragmatic one, insofar as it incorporates into medicine a social dimension, gradually developed in Europe during the 19th century.

It should be noted that mental, in WHO’s definition of health (as well as physical and social) refers to dimensions of a state and not to a specific domain or discipline. Therefore, according to this concept, it is incongruous to refer to physical health, mental health or social health. Should one wish to specify a particular dimension, the most appropriate noun to designate it should be wellbeing and not health (e.g., mental wellbeing or social wellbeing). This negligent use of the word health seems to have been also in operation when mental hygiene (a social movement, or a domain of activity) was replaced by mental health (originally intended to designate a state and later transformed in a particular domain or field of activity).

The International Congress of Mental Health

The First International Congress of Mental Health was organized in London by the British National Association for Mental Hygiene from 16 to 21 August, 1948. Starting as an International Conference on Mental Hygiene, it ended with a series of recommendations on mental health. Throughout the proceedings of the conference, hygiene and health, qualifying mental, are used interchangeably, sometimes in the same paragraph, without any clear conceptual distinction. However, in the 17 pages of the recommendations of the conference, hygiene is very sparingly used. At the end of the congress, the International Committee on Mental Hygiene was superseded by the World Federation for Mental Health.

In addition to the wording employed in the proceedings of that congress, gradually replacing hygiene by health, some of its recommendations were also influential at other levels. An example is recommendation 6 to the WHO that “as soon as practicable, an advisory expert committee be established, composed of professional personnel in the field of mental health and human relations”.

The conference had been convened under the theme “Mental Health and World Citizenship”. From a conceptual point of view, nevertheless, and perhaps reflecting an immediately post-war situation, discussions over world citizenship prevailed over those on mental health. Only one concept of mental health was put forward, by J.C. Flugel, Chairman of the Conference’s Programme Committee: “Mental health is regarded as a condition which permits the optimal development, physical, intellectual and emotional, of the individual, so far as this is compatible with that of other individuals.” 15. Echoing concerns about the absence, or rather limited number of, participants from places such as Far East, South America and the Soviet Union, the hope was expressed that “mental health as understood in Western countries [is not] necessarily at variance with the sense in which it is understood in other countries” 15.

In a more detailed way, some delegates elaborated on what was summarized as the “four levels of mental health work: custodial, therapeutic, preventive and positive” 15. It is not difficult to see a considerable overlapping between this proposal and the one already implemented by the mental hygiene movement.

At the closing session, O.L. Forel, Lecturer in Psychiatry at the University of Geneva, answering to criticisms that mental hygiene, as understood in that conference, went beyond the medical and scientific framework, made a clearly political (in Plato’s sense) statement by saying that: “I dare hope to be your interpreter in expressing our pride that so many scientists came here not at all to develop their respective sciences, but to have them at men’s service” 15.

Reading through the proceedings of this congress gives one a feeling of the tensions between a pragmatic approach, developed by the mental hygiene movement (basically defended by delegates from the USA), and a more politically-oriented approach, proposed by other participants, perhaps translating the experiences of some delegates from European countries, which had severely suffered from the war. In the end this latter approach prevailed, with the transformation of the mental hygiene movement into the mental health movement. Perhaps as a reflection of this basically political movement, in 1949 the National Institute of Mental Health started its activities in the USA.


After half a century of the mental health, and almost a century of the mental hygiene movements, some developments can be perceived. On a more general level, the WHO’s very concept of health has been recently questioned; formulated half a century ago, it is no longer felt by some as much appropriate to the current situation 16,17.

On the whole, mental health continues to be used both to designate a state, a dimension of health – an essential element in the definition of health – and to refer to the movement derived from the mental hygiene movement, corresponding to the application of psychiatry to groups, communities and societies, rather than on an individual basis, as is the case with clinical psychiatry. However, mental health is, quite unfortunately, still viewed by many as a discipline, either as a synonym of psychiatry, or as one of its complementary fields.

A recent trend has been the addition of the qualifier public to either mental health or to psychiatry, as it can be seen in a WHO document entitled Public mental health 18, or in a journal named Psiquiatría Pública, published in Spain since 1989. This is very much in line with the concept of mental health as a movement rather than a discipline.

In 2001, the WHO dedicated its annual report (The World Health Report – Mental health: new knowledge, new hope) to mental health 19. In that same year, the theme of the World Health Day was Stop Exclusion – Dare to Care, a quite clear political statement, that I am sure would have immensely pleased Clifford Beers.

In the message from the WHO Director-General that opens that report, Gro H. Brundtland summarizes the three main knowledge areas covered by the document: a) effectiveness of prevention and treatment, b) service planning and provision, and c) policies to break down stigma and discrimination and adequate funds for prevention and treatment. If one allows for the semantic variations between the beginnings of the 20th and the 21st centuries, the same concerns of the origins of the mental hygiene movement, discussed earlier on, can be found in the mental health content of the World Health Report. Perhaps the biggest difference between these two political platforms is the emphasis on the improvement of hospital care in the former (the only form of treatment available by then), and the contemporary emphasis on distancing mental health from psychiatric hospitals and placing it in the community.

However, one must admit that, unfortunately, what was high in Beers’ agenda in 1909, namely, an improvement in the standards of mental health care and an eradication of the abuses to which people with mental disorders are usually subject, is still a major concern of the most progressive and advanced agenda of people interested in the promotion of mental health around the world.


The constructive comments provided on an earlier version of this paper by I. Levav and B. Saraceno are gratefully acknowledged by the author.


World Psychiatry. 2008 Jun; 7(2): 113–116. 

doi: 10.1002/j.2051-5545.2008.tb00172.x

PMCID: PMC2408392

PMID: 18560478


1Department of Mental Health, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland

Copyright World Psychiatric Association

Articles from World Psychiatry are provided here courtesy of The World Psychiatric Association


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