How Long Does the Spike Protein- mRNA stay in your blood?


Researchers looked at 108 patients with ‘chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection followed in our clinic received mRNA vaccinations according to the Danish roll-out vaccination plan. To monitor HCV infection, RNA was extracted from patient plasma and RNA sequencing was performed on the Illumina platform. In 10 of 108 HCV patient samples (9.3%), full-length or traces of SARS-CoV-2 spike mRNA vaccine sequences were found in blood up to 28 days after COVID-19 vaccination.’‘To our knowledge, our study is the first to detect Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna COVID-19 mRNA vaccine sequences in blood after vaccination, and therefore provides new knowledge regarding the timeframe in which the mRNA can be detected’
2)up to 60 days


‘Immunohistochemical staining for spike antigen in mRNA-vaccinated patient LNs varied between individuals but showed abundant spike protein in GCs 16 days post-second dose, with spike antigen still present as late as 60 days post-second dose.’
3)Up to 4 months


‘Transmission electron microscopy of exosomes also demonstrated spike protein Ags on their surface. Exosomes with spike protein and Abs decreased in parallel after four months.’
4)Up to 15 months post infection


‘The levels of both intermediate (CD14+, CD16+) and non-classical monocyte (CD14Lo, CD16+) were significantly elevated in PASC patients up to 15 months post-acute infection compared to healthy controls (P=0.002 and P=0.01, respectively).’
5)Up to 48 hours in breast milk post vaccination


‘No vaccine mRNA was detected in pre-vaccination or postvaccination expressed breast milk (EBM) samples beyond 48 hours of collection.’

What Is the Group of 20 (G-20)? Countries, Influence, and Agenda

What Is the Group of 20 (G-20)? Countries, Influence, and Agenda
By WILL KENTON Updated March 25, 2022
Reviewed by ERIC ESTEVEZ
Fact checked by PETE RATHBURN
What Is the Group of 20 (G-20)?
The Group of 20, also called the G-20, is a group of finance ministers and central bank governors from 19 of the world’s largest economies, including those of many developing nations, along with the European Union. Formed in 1999, the G-20 promotes global economic growth, international trade, and regulation of financial markets.

Because the G-20 is a forum, not a legislative body, its agreements and decisions have no legal impact, but they do influence countries’ policies and global cooperation. Together, the economies of the G-20 countries represent more than 80% of the gross world product (GWP), 75% of world trade, and 60% of the world population.
After its inaugural leaders’ summit in 2008, the leaders of the G-20 announced that the group would replace the G-8 as the main economic council of nations.

The G-20 is a leading forum for global financial issues whose members include major developed and developing economies.
Although not a legislative body, its discussions help shape financial policy within each of its member countries.
Recent agenda items at G-20 meetings have included cryptocurrency, food security, and trade wars.
Policy Focus of the Group of 20 (G-20)
The agenda and activities of the G-20 are established by its rotating Presidencies, in cooperation with the membership. Initially, the group’s discussion had a focus on the sustainability of sovereign debt and global financial stability. Those themes have continued as frequent topics at the G-20’s summits, along with discussions about global economic growth, international trade, and the regulation of financial markets.

Under the current Indonesian Presidency, the G-20 is focused on three interconnected pillars of action: global health architecture, digital transformation, and sustainable energy transition.
The 2021 summit was held in Rome on Oct. 30 and 31. Some of the topics at that summit included: supporting small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and women-owned businesses, the role of the private sector in the fight against climate change, and sustainable development.

Previously, the 2019 G-20 Osaka summit focused on the global economy, trade and investment, innovation, the environment and energy, employment, women’s empowerment, development, and wellness.
In 2018, Argentina proposed a focus on the future of work, infrastructure for development, and a sustainable food future. That meeting also included talks on the regulation of cryptocurrencies and the U.S.-China trade war.

The year the Group of 20 (G-20) was formed.
The Group of 20 (G-20) vs. the Group of Seven (G-7)
The G-20’s ranks include all members of the Group of Seven (G-7), a forum of the European Union and the seven countries with the world’s largest developed economies: France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Canada. Formed in 1975, the G-7 meets annually on international issues, including economic and monetary matters.

Apart from being older than the G-20, the G-7 has sometimes been described as a more political body because all of its meetings have long included not only finance ministers but chief ministers, including presidents and prime ministers. However, the G-20, since the global financial crisis of 2008, has increasingly held summits that include political leaders as well as finance ministers and bank governors.

And where the G-7 exclusively comprises developed countries, many of the additional 12 nations that make up the G-20 are drawn from those with developing economies. Indeed, having a forum at which developed and emerging nations could confer was part of the impetus for creating the G-20.

Russia and the Group of 20 (G-20)
In 2014, the G-7 and G-20 took different approaches to Russia’s membership after the country made military incursions into Ukraine and eventually annexed the Ukrainian territory of Crimea. G-7, which Russia had formally joined in 1998 to create the G-8, suspended the country’s membership in the group; Russia subsequently decided to formally leave the G-8 in 2017.

Though Australia, host of the 2014 G-20 summit in Brisbane, proposed to ban Russia from the summit over its role, Russia has remained a member of the larger group, in part because of strong support from Brazil, India, and China, who together with Russia are collectively known as the BRIC nations.

The debate over Russia’s membership in the G-20 was renewed in March 2022 following its invasion of Ukraine. While attending G7 and NATO summits in Brussels on March 24, President Biden called for Russia’s expulsion from the group. But Russian officials insisted Vladimir Putin would attend the G-20 summit scheduled to take place in Indonesia in November.
Membership of the Group of 20 (G-20)
Along with the members of the G-7, 12 other nations currently comprise the G-20: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, and Turkey.

In addition, the G-20 invites guest countries to attend their events. Spain is invited permanently as is the current chair of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN); two African countries (the chair of the African Union and a representative of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development) and at least one country invited by the presidency, usually from its own region.

International organizations such as the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, the United Nations, the Financial Stability Board, and the World Trade Organization also attend the summits.

The work of ensuring the continuity of the G-20 is handled by a “Troika,” represented by the country that holds the Presidency, its predecessor, and its successor. The current Troika countries include Italy, Indonesia, and India.

The G-20 has been criticized for lack of transparency, encouraging trade agreements that strengthen large corporations, being slow to combat climate change, and failing to address social inequality and global threats to democracy.
Criticism of the Group of 20 (G-20)
Since its inception, some of the G-20’s operations have drawn controversy. Concerns include transparency and accountability, with critics calling attention to the absence of a formal charter for the group and the fact that some of the most important G-20 meetings are held behind closed doors.

Some of the group’s policy prescriptions have also been unpopular, especially with liberal groups. Protests at the group’s summits have, among other criticisms, accused the G-20 of encouraging trade agreements that strengthen large corporations, of being delinquent in combating climate change, and in failing to address social inequality and global threats to democracy.

The G-20’s membership policies have come under fire, too. Critics say the group is overly restrictive, and its practice of adding guests, such as those from African countries, is little more than a token effort to make the G-20 reflective of the world’s economic diversity. Former U.S. President Barack Obama noted the challenge of determining who can join such a powerful group: “Everybody wants the smallest possible group that includes them. So, if they’re the 21st largest nation in the world, they want the G-21, and think it’s highly unfair if they have been cut out.”

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Related Terms
Group of Five (G5): Definition, Current Countries, Importance
The Group of Five (G-5) is a country grouping that since the mid-2000s includes Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa. more
Group of Seven (G7) Defined: Member Countries & How It Works
The Group of Seven (G-7) is a forum created in 1975 of the world’s seven most industrialized economies. more
Group of Eight (G-8)
The Group of Eight (G-8) was an assembly of the world’s most developed economies that met periodically to discuss international economic issues. It has been replaced by the G-7. more
The Group of 77 (G-77)
The Group of 77 is the name given to the UN’s biggest intergovernmental group of emerging countries. Assembled in 1964, the Group of 77 is 130 members strong. more
G7 Bond
A G7 Bond is a government bond issued by a member nation of the Group of Seven (G7). more
European Investment Bank (EIB)
The European Investment Bank (EIB) is a nonprofit organization that finances technical assistance and provides investment capital for business projects. more
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Timeline of the East Palestine, Ohio train derailment | CNN

Ohio train derailment timeline
Feb. 3 — A Norfolk Southern freight train carrying hazardous materials derails in East Palestine, Ohio.

Feb. 4 — The EPA says it is responding to the derailment site. EPA begins air monitoring for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including vinyl chloride and butyl acrylate, which were on the train and can be harmful to people, according to the agency.

Contractors with the EPA install booms and underflow dams to restrict the flow of contaminated water as well as contain and collect floating product to mitigate any possible impacts to the Sulphur Run and Leslie Run streams, they say.

Feb. 5 — Gov. Mike DeWine activates the Ohio National Guard to assist local authorities.

Officials issue a shelter-in-place order for the entire town of roughly 5,000 people. An evacuation order is issued for the area within a mile radius of the train crash near James Street, due to the risk of an explosion.

EPA community air monitoring readings do not detect any contaminants of concern, they say. Norfolk Southern’s contractor continues to conduct air monitoring, the agency says.

The National Transportation Safety Board is on scene to gather evidence and asks the community to submit photos or videos of the incident.

NTSB conducts a one-mile walk-through of track outside the hot zone and identifies the point of derailment. NTSB Member Michael Graham says the preliminary report is expected in four to eight weeks.

Aeration pumps – which help treat contamination by injecting oxygen into the water – begin operating at three locations along Sulphur Run and its confluence with Leslie Run. EPA and Norfolk Southern contractors collect surface water samples for analysis.

The East Palestine water treatment plant, which treats water sourced from public wells, confirms there were no adverse effects to the plant, the EPA says.

Feb. 6 — To prevent an explosion, Norfolk Southern launches a controlled burn of rail cars containing vinyl chloride. EPA air monitoring detects particulate matter resulting from the fire, the agency says.

In addition to real-time air monitoring, the EPA says it is collecting air samples in conjunction with the 52nd Civil Support Team — a specialized unit of the Ohio National Guard — for analysis.

The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency leads efforts to investigate and address possible impacts to Sulphur Run and Leslie Run, the agency says.

Feb. 7 — Residents in the area are told they may smell odors coming from the site because the byproducts of the controlled burn have a low odor threshold – meaning people may smell these contaminants at levels much lower than what is considered hazardous, the EPA says.

The EPA continues to perform air monitoring and work with Norfolk Southern, health departments and other responding agencies to develop procedures for safely reoccupying the evacuated areas.

The 52nd Civil Service Team conducts air monitoring in three public administration buildings and collects air samples from each building, according to the EPA.

The EPA says it is investigating a complaint of odors from the Darlington Township, Pennsylvania, fire station. A team with air monitoring equipment goes to the station, where it does not observe any contaminants above detection limits.

Feb. 8 — The evacuation order is lifted, five days after the derailment, after water samples are analyzed overnight. The results lead officials to deem the water is safe, East Palestine Fire Chief Keith Drabick says at a news conference.

The EPA and Ohio EPA find spilled materials in Sulphur Run, the EPA says. Oily product is leaking from a tank car and pooling onto the soil. Norfolk Southern is notified of the spill and begins removing the product using a vacuum truck.

A local couple and business owner file the first-class action lawsuit against Norfolk Southern, CNN reports. The suit accuses the rail company of negligence, stating it failed to exercise reasonable care for residents, with businesses adversely affected by the derailment and chemical spill.

Feb. 9 — EPA continues stationary and roaming air monitoring surrounding the derailment scene.

Despite officials deeming the air and water samples safe, some residents still have concerns. Residents are encouraged to get their homes deep cleaned and seek medical attention, if necessary, officials say at a press conference.

The EPA works with Ohio EPA to investigate remaining soil contamination and any impacts to surface water, the agency says. EPA collects samples of spilled material near the derailment site and in Sulphur Run.

Officials say schools will remain closed until further notice from the superintendent.

Mayor Trent Conaway ensures that the school building will be scrubbed “head to toe” and air tested before any child walks back into the building.

Feb. 10 — Some residents say when they returned to their homes in East Palestine, within a half-hour they developed a rash and nausea.

EPA is assisting with voluntary residential air screening appointments offered by Norfolk Southern, the agency says. Crews have screened indoor air at a total of 46 homes. There are over 400 requests for indoor air screening remaining.

To increase the rate of screening, Norfolk Southern – with EPA assistance – brings more teams and equipment to East Palestine, according to the EPA.

Ohio EPA leads efforts to investigate and remediate impacts to water, the agency says. Samples from Sulphur Run and other points of nearby water streams are taken for testing.

Norfolk Southern contractors install a dam and a water bypass at Sulphur Run to prevent further contamination of downstream waters, the EPA says.

Feb. 11 — EPA issues a general notice of potential liability letter to Norfolk Southern to document the release or threat of release of hazardous substances, pollutants or contaminants to the environment. The letter outlines EPA cleanup actions at the site and the potential to hold the railroad accountable for associated costs.

EPA continues to assist Norfolk Southern and Columbiana County Emergency Management Agency with voluntary residential air screening, the EPA says.

Feb. 12 — EPA posts a document from Norfolk Southern listing the cars that were involved in the derailment and the products they were carrying.

Air monitoring throughout East Palestine continues, the EPA says. Monitoring since the fire went out has not detected any levels of concern that can be attributed to the incident.

Local schools and the library are screened, the EPA says.

Feb. 13 — Reentry air screenings are underway. Community air monitoring will continue operating 24 hours a day.

EPA deploys two more Summa air sampling canisters for continuous sampling.

EPA discontinues phosgene and hydrogen chloride community air monitoring. After the fire was extinguished on February 8, the threat of vinyl chloride fire producing phosgene and hydrogen chloride no longer exists. EPA will continue 24-hour community air monitoring for other chemicals of concern.

The East Palestine School District “safely” reopens schools.

Feb. 14 — No vinyl chloride is detected in any of the down-gradient waterways near the train derailment, Tiffani Kavalec, Chief of the Division of Surface Water at the Ohio EPA says. Active aeration of the waterways near the derailment continue and even though some waterways remain contaminated, the agency says they are confident the contaminants are contained.

About 3,500 fish across 12 different species have died in Ohio waterways, the Ohio Department of Natural Resources says.

Feb. 15 — Residents pack a high school gym in East Palestine for a meeting with officials to discuss the current state of their community, CNN reports.

The event hosted by East Palestine officials was supposed to include officials from Norfolk Southern. But the company, which said it had hoped to provide updates on cleanup efforts and results from air and water tests, backed out earlier in the day, saying it was concerned about a “growing physical threat to our employees and members of the community around this event,” stemming from its belief that “outside parties” would participate.

Instead, local leaders take questions from emotional residents who expressed distrust of officials’ accounts and anger – including at the transport company’s decision to skip the event.

Norfolk Southern provides bottled water at their family assistance center, the EPA says.

Regional Administrator Debra Shore attends a community meeting alongside EPA on-scene coordinators and state and local officials to hear residents’ concerns.

Gov. DeWine issues a news release stating the municipal water is safe to consume. Test results from the village’s municipal well sampling showed no water quality concerns, the state says.

East Palestine’s municipal water supply comes from five wells, DeWine’s office said. All the wells are at least 56 feet underground and encased in steel. As of February 15 (12 days after the derailment/initial explosion and 9 days after the controlled detonation), test samples from both the raw, untreated municipal water and the treated water showed no dangerous levels of contaminants, the governor’s office said.

DeWine encourages those East Palestine residents with private wells who have not had their water tested to continue drinking bottled water “out of an abundance of caution.”

Norfolk Southern has not removed potentially contaminated soil from the site, new documents posted by the EPA show. Norfolk Southern tells CNN it continues to work to clean up the site, including the removal of soil.

“Contaminated soil will continue (to) leech contaminants, both up into the air, and down into the surrounding ground,” Richard Peltier, an environmental health scientist at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, tells CNN in an email. “Every time it rains, a flood of new contaminants will enter the ecosystem.”

Feb. 16 — EPA Administrator Michael Regan arrives in East Palestine to assess the ongoing response to the Norfolk Southern train derailment. The administrator meets with city, state and federal leaders involved in the response, hearing directly from residents about the impacts of the crisis and discuss EPA’s work.

DeWine asks the CDC for immediate assistance by sending expert medical assistance including doctors and professionals who can evaluate residents who are experiencing symptoms.

Feb. 17 — DeWine says no derailment contaminants have been found in homes tested for air quality and that there is a section of Sulfur Run near the crash site that remains severely contaminated.

Requests for medical experts from the federal government have been granted and DeWine says officials should arrive next week to help prop up a clinic for patients.

Feb. 18 — Air monitoring and indoor air screening continue, according to the EPA. Municipal water samples show no water quality concerns, the agency says.

Emphasis is being placed on recovery of all pooled liquids, excavation of heavily contaminated soil, and removal of all remaining rail cars, according to the EPA. In order to capture any contamination leaving the site, Norfolk Southern establishes a containment area in a section of Sulphur Creek to divert all upstream water around the containment area. The containment area has effectively cut off the introduction of additional contamination into Sulphur Run.

Feb. 19 — The village of East Palestine’s municipal well water sample results show no water quality concerns, the EPA says. The Columbiana County General Health District continues to sample private water wells. To date, 52 wells have been sampled, 49 in Ohio, and three across the border in Pennsylvania, the agency says.

Norfolk Southern continues scrapping and removing rail cars at the derailment location, excavating contaminated areas, removing liquids from affected storm drains and staging recovered waste for transportation to an approved disposal facility, the EPA says. Water continues to be diverted from the upstream wetland area to Sulphur Run.

Feb. 21 — The state opens up a health clinic for residents who worry their symptoms, such as trouble breathing, rashes and nausea, might be linked to the derailment.

CNN reports investigators are reviewing videos of the train prior to it derailing. One video shows “what appears to be a wheel bearing in the final stage of overheat failure moments before the derailment,” the National Transportation Safety Board says in a statement.

The EPA announces its legally binding notice ordering Norfolk Southern to handle and pay for all necessary cleanup involved in the derailment.

As part of EPA’s legally binding order, the agency said, Norfolk Southern will be required to:

• Identify and clean up any contaminated soil and water resources,

• Reimburse the EPA for cleaning services to be offered to residents and businesses to provide an additional layer of reassurance, which will be conducted by EPA staff and contractors,

• Attend and participate in public meetings at the EPA’s request and post information online,

• Pay for the EPA’s costs for work performed under this order.

The order will take effect February 23. If the rail company fails to complete any actions ordered by EPA, the agency says it will immediately step in, conduct the necessary work and then seek to compel Norfolk Southern to pay triple the cost.

After the accusations, Norfolk Southern issued a statement to CNN:

“We recognize that we have a responsibility, and we have committed to doing what’s right for the residents of East Palestine,” the company said Tuesday.

“We have been paying for the clean-up activities to date and will continue to do so. We are committed to thoroughly and safely cleaning the site, and we are reimbursing residents for the disruption this has caused in their lives. We are investing in helping East Palestine thrive for the long-term, and we will continue to be in the community for as long as it takes. We are going to learn from this terrible accident and work with regulators and elected officials to improve railroad safety.”

The Pennsylvania Attorney General’s office says it will investigate the train derailment following a criminal referral it received from the state’s Department of Environmental Protection, according to a statement from the office.

Gov. Josh Shapiro first mentioned the criminal referral when he was asked what nonfinancial actions are being taken.

In response to news about the criminal referral, a Norfolk Southern spokesperson said the company had no comment.

Feb. 22 — EPA Administrator Michael Regan threatens to fine Norfolk Southern if it fails to fully clean up after the mess the derailment left behind, he says, citing the agency’s authority under CERCLA – the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act.

Regan summarizes the EPA’s demands to Norfolk Southern:

“Number one: They will clean up every single piece of debris, all of the contamination, to EPA specifications and satisfaction,” he tells CNN.

“Number two: They will pay for it – fully pay for it. At any moment, if we have to step in because they refuse to do anything, we will do the cleaning up ourselves. We can fine them up to $70,000 a day,” the EPA chief said.

“And when we recoup our total costs, we can charge them three times of the amount of the cost of the federal government. That is what the law provides.”

The East Palestine School District closes for one day due to former President Donald Trump’s scheduled visit to the area.

Feb. 23 — Transportation Secretary Pete Buttigieg makes his first visit to East Palestine nearly three weeks after the train derailment and defends the timing of the trip.

“In terms of the timing of the visit, I’m trying to strike the right balance allowing NTSB to play its role but making sure we’re here in that show of support,” he said.

Buttigieg says he’s focused on making regulatory changes to prevent future incidents and challenged his critics to do the same.

Sources: EPA; Ohio Governor’s office, Pennsylvania Governor’s office; CNN reporting 
— Read on

As crews remove contaminated soil and liquid from Ohio toxic train wreck site, concerns emerge about where it’s going | CNN

The hazardous waste that has already been sent to Michigan and Texas is being processed, EPA regional administrator Debra Shore said Sunday.

About 2 million gallons of firefighting water from the train derailment site were expected to be disposed in Harris County, Texas, with about half a million gallons already there, the county’s chief executive said last week.

House GOP committees plot investigations into East Palestine derailment
In Michigan, contaminated soil from the derailment site was taken to the US Ecology Wayne Disposal in Belleville, Michigan, US Rep. Debbie Dingell of Michigan said.

— Read on