Election 2020 Presidential Election Voter Fraud Findings from Various Sources

What went down at the TCF Center?

CERN Part 1: Is CERN Really What They Say It Is?

There seems to be a lot of strange things happening at CERN. Many believe that it is run by Satanic worshiping elite’s and they are convinced that it’s a very evil place. I don’t know personally but it certainly has my attention! In my next post I will share with you why it has my curiosity up so much. Feel free to leave your opinion in the comments because I’m definitely interested in what others think or have learned.

What is CERN? Where is CERN? What goes on at CERN? This is Wikipedia’s Information on CERN.

Source: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/CERN

CERN

For other uses, see Cern (disambiguation). Learn more

CERN logo.svg
CERN-aerial 1.jpg
CERN member states .svg

It has been suggested that .cern be mergedinto this article. (Discuss)

The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (/sɜːrn/; French pronunciation: [sɛʁn]; derived from the name Conseil européen pour la recherche nucléaire), is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world. Established in 1954, the organization is based in a northwest suburb of Geneva on the Franco–Swiss border and has 23 member states.[3] Israel is the only non-European country granted full membership.[4] CERN is an official United Nations Observer.[5]European Organization
for Nuclear Research
Organisation européenne
pour la recherche nucléaire

CERN’s main site, from Switzerland looking towards France

Member states Formation 29 September 1954; 67 years ago[1]HeadquartersMeyrin, Canton of Geneva, Switzerland

Membership 

23 countries

Official languages English and French

Council PresidentEliezer Rabinovici[2]

Director GeneralFabiola GianottiWebsitehome.cern

The acronym CERN is also used to refer to the laboratory, which in 2019 had 2,660 scientific, technical, and administrative staff members, and hosted about 12,400 users from institutions in more than 70 countries.[6] In 2016 CERN generated 49 petabytes of data.[7]

CERN’s main function is to provide the particle accelerators and other infrastructure needed for high-energy physics research as a result, numerous experiments have been constructed at CERN through international collaborations. CERN is the site of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the world’s largest and highest-energy particle collider.[8] The main site at Meyrin hosts a large computing facility, which is primarily used to store and analyse data from experiments, as well as simulate events. Researchers need remote access to these facilities, so the lab has historically been a major wide area networkhub. CERN is also the birthplace of the World Wide Web.[9][10]

History

The 12 founding member states of CERN in 1954[11]

The convention establishing CERN[12] was ratified on 29 September 1954 by 12 countries in Western Europe.[13] The acronym CERN originally represented the French words for Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire (European Council for Nuclear Research), which was a provisional council for building the laboratory, established by 12 European governments in 1952. During these early years, the council worked at the University of Copenhagen under the direction of Niels Bohr before moving to its present site in Geneva. The acronym was retained for the new laboratory after the provisional council was dissolved, even though the name changed to the current Organisation Européenne pour la Recherche Nucléaire (European Organization for Nuclear Research) in 1954.[14][15] According to Lew Kowarski, a former director of CERN, when the name was changed, the abbreviation could have become the awkward OERN,[16] and Werner Heisenberg said that this could “still be CERN even if the name is [not]”.[17]

CERN’s first president was Sir Benjamin Lockspeiser. Edoardo Amaldi was the general secretary of CERN at its early stages when operations were still provisional, while the first Director-General (1954) was Felix Bloch.[18]

The laboratory was originally devoted to the study of atomic nuclei, but was soon applied to higher-energy physics, concerned mainly with the study of interactions between subatomic particles. Therefore, the laboratory operated by CERN is commonly referred to as the European laboratory for particle physics (Laboratoire européen pour la physique des particules), which better describes the research being performed there.[citation needed]

Founding members

At the sixth session of the CERN Council, which took place in Paris from 29 June – 1 July 1953, the convention establishing the organization was signed, subject to ratification, by 12 states. The convention was gradually ratified by the 12 founding Member States: Belgium, Denmark, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and Yugoslavia.[19]

Scientific achievements

Several important achievements in particle physics have been made through experiments at CERN. They include:

In September 2011, CERN attracted media attention when the OPERA Collaboration reported the detection of possibly faster-than-light neutrinos.[33] Further tests showed that the results were flawed due to an incorrectly connected GPS synchronization cable.[34]

The 1984 Nobel Prize for Physics was awarded to Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer for the developments that resulted in the discoveries of the W and Z bosons.[35]The 1992 Nobel Prize for Physics was awarded to CERN staff researcher Georges Charpak “for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber“. The 2013 Nobel Prize for Physics was awarded to François Englert and Peter Higgs for the theoretical description of the Higgs mechanism in the year after the Higgs boson was found by CERN experiments.

Computer science

See also: History of the World Wide Web

This NeXT Computer used by British scientist Sir Tim Berners-Lee at CERN became the first Web server.

This Cisco Systems router at CERN was one of the first IP routers deployed in Europe.

A plaque at CERN commemorating the invention of the World Wide Webby Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau

The World Wide Web began as a CERN project named ENQUIRE, initiated by Tim Berners-Lee in 1989 and Robert Cailliau in 1990.[36][37][38][39] Berners-Lee and Cailliau were jointly honoured by the Association for Computing Machinery in 1995 for their contributions to the development of the World Wide Web.[40]

Based on the concept of hypertext, the project was intended to facilitate the sharing of information between researchers. The first website was activated in 1991. On 30 April 1993, CERN announced that the World Wide Web would be free to anyone. A copy[41] of the original first webpage, created by Berners-Lee, is still published on the World Wide Web Consortium‘s website as a historical document.

Prior to the Web’s development, CERN had pioneered the introduction of Internet technology, beginning in the early 1980s.[42]

More recently, CERN has become a facility for the development of grid computing, hosting projects including the Enabling Grids for E-sciencE (EGEE) and LHC Computing Grid. It also hosts the CERN Internet Exchange Point (CIXP), one of the two main internet exchange points in Switzerland. As of 2022 CERN employs ten times more engineers and technicians than research physicists.[43]

Particle accelerators

accelerators

Current complex

CERN Complex Current particle and nuclear facilities LHC Accelerates protonsand heavy ionsLEIR Accelerates ions SPS Accelerates protons and ions PSB Accelerates protons PS Accelerates protons or ions Linac 3 Injects heavy ions into LEIRLinac4 Accelerates ionsAD Decelerates antiprotonsELENA Decelerates antiprotons ISOLDE Produces radioactive ion beams

Map of the Large Hadron Collider together with the Super Proton Synchrotron at CERN

CERN operates a network of seven accelerators and two decelerators, and some additional small accelerators. Each machine in the chain increases the energy of particle beams before delivering them to experiments or to the next more powerful accelerator (the decelerators naturally decrease the energy of particle beams before delivering them to experiments or further accelerators/decelerators). Currently (as of 2022) active machines are the LHC accelerator and:

Large Hadron Collider

Main article: Large Hadron Collider

Many activities at CERN currently involve operating the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the experiments for it. The LHC represents a large-scale, worldwide scientific cooperation project.[60]

CMS detector for LHC

The LHC tunnel is located 100 metres underground, in the region between the Geneva International Airport and the nearby Jura mountains. The majority of its length is on the French side of the border. It uses the 27 km circumference circular tunnel previously occupied by the Large Electron–Positron Collider (LEP), which was shut down in November 2000. CERN’s existing PS/SPS accelerator complexes are used to pre-accelerate protons and lead ions which are then injected into the LHC.

Eight experiments (CMS,[61] ATLAS,[62]LHCb,[63] MoEDAL,[64] TOTEM,[65]LHCf,[66] FASER[67] and ALICE[68]) are located along the collider; each of them studies particle collisions from a different aspect, and with different technologies. Construction for these experiments required an extraordinary engineering effort. For example, a special crane was rented from Belgium to lower pieces of the CMS detector into its cavern, since each piece weighed nearly 2,000 tons. The first of the approximately 5,000 magnets necessary for construction was lowered down a special shaft at 13:00 GMT on 7 March 2005.

The LHC has begun to generate vast quantities of data, which CERN streams to laboratories around the world for distributed processing (making use of a specialized grid infrastructure, the LHC Computing Grid). During April 2005, a trial successfully streamed 600 MB/s to seven different sites across the world.

The initial particle beams were injected into the LHC August 2008.[69] The first beam was circulated through the entire LHC on 10 September 2008,[70] but the system failed 10 days later because of a faulty magnet connection, and it was stopped for repairs on 19 September 2008.

The LHC resumed operation on 20 November 2009 by successfully circulating two beams, each with an energy of 3.5 teraelectronvolts (TeV). The challenge for the engineers was then to try to line up the two beams so that they smashed into each other. This is like “firing two needles across the Atlantic and getting them to hit each other” according to Steve Myers, director for accelerators and technology.

On 30 March 2010, the LHC successfully collided two proton beams with 3.5 TeV of energy per proton, resulting in a 7 TeV collision energy. However, this was just the start of what was needed for the expected discovery of the Higgs boson. When the 7 TeV experimental period ended, the LHC revved to 8 TeV (4 TeV per proton) starting March 2012, and soon began particle collisions at that energy. In July 2012, CERN scientists announced the discovery of a new sub-atomic particle that was later confirmed to be the Higgs boson.[71] In March 2013, CERN announced that the measurements performed on the newly found particle allowed it to conclude that this is a Higgs boson.[72] In early 2013, the LHC was deactivated for a two-year maintenance period, to strengthen the electrical connections between magnets inside the accelerator and for other upgrades.

On 5 April 2015, after two years of maintenance and consolidation, the LHC restarted for a second run. The first ramp to the record-breaking energy of 6.5 TeV was performed on 10 April 2015.[73][74] In 2016, the design collision rate was exceeded for the first time.[75] A second two-year period of shutdown begun at the end of 2018.[76][77]

Accelerators under construction

As of October 2019, the construction is on-going to upgrade the LHC’s luminosity in a project called High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). This project should see the LHC accelerator upgraded by 2026 to an order of magnitude higher luminosity.[78]

As part of the HL-LHC upgrade project, also other CERN accelerators and their subsystems are receiving upgrades. Among other work, the LINAC 2 linear accelerator injector was decommissioned and replaced by a new injector accelerator, the LINAC4.[79]

Decommissioned accelerators

  • The original linear accelerator LINAC 1. Operated 1959–1992.[80]
  • The LINAC 2 linear accelerator injector. Accelerated protons to 50 MeV for injection into the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB). Operated 1978–2018.[81]
  • The 600 MeV Synchro-Cyclotron (SC) which started operation in 1957 and was shut down in 1991. Was made into a public exhibition in 2012–2013.[82][83]
  • The Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR), an early collider built from 1966 to 1971 and operated until 1984.[84][85]
  • The Super Proton–Antiproton Synchrotron (SppS), operated 1981–1991.[86] A modification of Super Proton Synchroton (SPS) to operate as a proton-antiproton collider.
  • The Large Electron–Positron Collider(LEP), which operated from 1989 to 2000 and was the largest machine of its kind, housed in a 27 km-long circular tunnel which now houses the Large Hadron Collider.[87][88]
  • The LEP Pre-Injector (LPI) accelerator complex,[89] consisting of two accelerators, a linear accelerator called LEP Injector Linac (LIL; itself consisting of two back-to-back linear accelerators called LIL V and LIL W) and a circular accelerator called Electron Positron Accumulator (EPA).[90] The purpose of these accelerators was to inject positron and electron beams into the CERN accelerator complex (more precisely, to the Proton Synchrotron), to be delivered to LEP after many stages of acceleration. Operational 1987–2001; after the shutdown of LEP and the completion of experiments that were directly feed by the LPI, the LPI facility was adapted to be used for the CLIC Test Facility 3(CTF3).[91]
  • The Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) was commissioned in 1982. LEAR assembled the first pieces of true antimatter, in 1995, consisting of nine atoms of antihydrogen.[92] It was closed in 1996, and superseded by the Antiproton Decelerator. The LEAR apparatus itself was reconfigured into the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) ion booster.[45]
  • The Antiproton Accumulator (AA), built 1979–1980, operations ended in 1997 and the machine was dismantled. Stored antiprotons produced by the Proton Synchrotron (PS) for use in other experiments and accelerators (for example the ISR, SppS and LEAR). For later half of its working life operated in tandem with Antiproton Collector (AC), to form the Antiproton Accumulation Complex (AAC).[93]
  • The Antiproton Collector (AC),[94][95]built 1986–1987, operations ended in 1997 and the machine was converted into the Antiproton Decelerator (AD), which is the successor machine for Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR). Operated in tandem with Antiproton Accumulator(AA) and the pair formed the Antiproton Accumulation Complex (AAC),[93] whose purpose was to store antiprotons produced by the Proton Synchrotron (PS) for use in other experiments and accelerators, like the Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) and Super Proton–Antiproton Synchrotron (SppS).
  • The Compact Linear Collider Test Facility 3 (CTF3), which studied feasibility for the future normal conducting linear collider project (the CLIC collider). In operation 2001–2016.[91] One of its beamlines has been converted, from 2017 on, into the new CERN Linear Electron Accelerator for Research (CLEAR) facility.

Possible future accelerators

Main article: Future Circular Collider

CERN, in collaboration with groups worldwide, is investigating two main concepts for future accelerators: A linear electron-positron collider with a new acceleration concept to increase the energy (CLIC) and a larger version of the LHC, a project currently named Future Circular Collider.[96]

Sites

Interior of office building 40 at the Meyrin site. Building 40 hosts many offices for scientists from the CMS and ATLAS collaborations.

The smaller accelerators are on the main Meyrin site (also known as the West Area), which was originally built in Switzerland alongside the French border, but has been extended to span the border since 1965. The French side is under Swiss jurisdiction and there is no obvious border within the site, apart from a line of marker stones.

The SPS and LEP/LHC tunnels are almost entirely outside the main site, and are mostly buried under French farmland and invisible from the surface. However, they have surface sites at various points around them, either as the location of buildings associated with experiments or other facilities needed to operate the colliders such as cryogenic plants and access shafts. The experiments are located at the same underground level as the tunnels at these sites.

Three of these experimental sites are in France, with ATLAS in Switzerland, although some of the ancillary cryogenic and access sites are in Switzerland. The largest of the experimental sites is the Prévessin site, also known as the North Area, which is the target station for non-collider experiments on the SPS accelerator. Other sites are the ones which were used for the UA1UA2 and the LEP experiments (the latter are used by LHC experiments).

Outside of the LEP and LHC experiments, most are officially named and numbered after the site where they were located. For example, NA32 was an experiment looking at the production of so-called “charmed” particles and located at the Prévessin(North Area) site while WA22 used the Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC) at the Meyrin (West Area) site to examine neutrino interactions. The UA1 and UA2 experiments were considered to be in the Underground Area, i.e. situated underground at sites on the SPS accelerator.

Most of the roads on the CERN Meyrin and Prévessin sites are named after famous physicists, such as Wolfgang Pauli, who pushed for CERN’s creation. Other notable names are Richard Feynman, Albert Einstein, and Bohr.

Participation and funding

Member states and budget

Since its foundation by 12 members in 1954, CERN regularly accepted new members. All new members have remained in the organization continuously since their accession, except Spain and Yugoslavia. Spain first joined CERN in 1961, withdrew in 1969, and rejoined in 1983. Yugoslavia was a founding member of CERN but quit in 1961. Of the 23 members, Israel joined CERN as a full member on 6 January 2014,[97] becoming the first (and currently only) non-European full member.[98]

The budget contributions of member states are computed based on their GDP.[99]Member stateStatus sinceContribution
(million CHFfor 2019)Contribution
(fraction of total for 2019)Contribution per capita[note 1]
(CHF/person for 2017)Founding Members[note 2]Belgium29 September 195430.72.68%2.7Denmark29 September 195420.51.79%3.4France29 September 1954160.314.0%2.6Germany29 September 1954236.020.6%2.8Greece29 September 195412.51.09%1.6Italy29 September 1954118.410.4%2.1Netherlands29 September 195451.84.53%3.0Norway29 September 195428.32.48%5.4Sweden29 September 195430.52.66%3.0Switzerland29 September 195447.14.12%4.9United Kingdom29 September 1954184.016.1%2.4 Yugoslavia[note 3]29 September 1954[102][103]00%0.0Acceded Members[note 4]Austria1 June 195924.72.16%2.9Spain[note 5]1 January 1983[103][105]80.77.06%2.0Portugal1 January 198612.51.09%1.3Finland1 January 199115.11.32%2.8Poland1 July 199131.92.79%0.8Hungary1 July 19927.00.609%0.7Czech Republic1 July 199310.90.950%1.1Slovakia1 July 19935.60.490%1.0Bulgaria11 June 19993.40.297%0.4Israel6 January 2014[97]19.71.73%2.7Romania17 July 2016[106]12.01.05%0.6Serbia24 March 2019[107]2.50.221%0.1Associate Members in the pre-stage to membershipEstonia1 February 2020[108][109]1.0N/AN/ACyprus1 April 2016[110]1.0N/AN/ASlovenia4 July 2017[111][112]1.0N/AN/AAssociate MembersTurkey6 May 2015[113]5.7N/AN/APakistan31 July 2015[114]1.7N/AN/AUkraine5 October 2016[115]1.0N/AN/AIndia16 January 2017[116]13.8N/AN/ALithuania8 January 2018[117]1.0N/AN/ACroatia10 October 2019[118]0.25N/AN/ALatvia14 April 2021[119]N/AN/ATotal Members, Candidates and Associates1,171.2[99][120]100.0%N/A

  1. ^ Based on the population in 2017. 
  2. ^ 12 founding members drafted the Convention for the Establishment of a European Organization for Nuclear Research which entered into force on 29 September 1954.[100][101]
  3. ^ Yugoslavia left the organization in 1961.
  4. ^ Acceded members become CERN member states by ratifying the CERN convention.[104]
  5. ^ Spain was previously a member state from 1961 to 1969

Maps of the history of CERN membership

  • 1954 (12 members): CERN is founded [a](1954-1990 borders)
  • 1959 (13 members): Austria joins (1954-1990 borders)
  • 1961 (13 members): Spain joins and Yugoslavia leaves (1954-1990 borders)
  • 1969 (12 members): Spain leaves (1954-1990 borders)
  • 1983 (13 members): Spain re-joins (1954-1990 borders)
  • 1985 (14 members): Portugal joins (1954-1990 borders)
  • 1991 (16 members): Poland and Finland join, and Germany has been reunified(post 1993 borders)
  • 1992 (17 members): Hungary joins (post 1993 borders)
  • 1993 (19 members): Czech Republic and Slovakia join (post 1993 borders)
  • 1999 (20 members): Bulgaria joins (post 1993 borders)
  • Animated map showing changes in CERN membership from 1954 until 1999 (borders are as at dates of change)

Enlargement

Associate Members, Candidates:

  • Turkey signed an association agreement on 12 May 2014[121] and became an associate member on 6 May 2015.
  • Pakistan signed an association agreement on 19 December 2014[122] and became an associate member on 31 July 2015.[123][124]
  • Cyprus signed an association agreement on 5 October 2012 and became an associate Member in the pre-stage to membership on 1 April 2016.[110]
  • Ukraine signed an association agreement on 3 October 2013. The agreement was ratified on 5 October 2016.[115]
  • India signed an association agreement on 21 November 2016.[125] The agreement was ratified on 16 January 2017.[116]
  • Slovenia was approved for admission as an Associate Member state in the pre-stage to membership on 16 December 2016.[111] The agreement was ratified on 4 July 2017.[112]
  • Lithuania was approved for admission as an Associate Member state on 16 June 2017. The association agreement was signed on 27 June 2017 and ratified on 8 January 2018.[126][117]
  • Croatia was approved for admission as an Associate Member state on 28 February 2019. The agreement was ratified on 10 October 2019.[118]
  • Estonia was approved for admission as an Associate Member in the pre-stage to membership state on 19 June 2020. The agreement was ratified on 1 February 2021.[108]

International relations

Three countries have observer status:[127]

  • Japan – since 1995
  • Russia – since 1993 (suspended as of March 2022 [128])
  • United States – since 1997

Also observers are the following international organizations:

Non-Member States (with dates of Co-operation Agreements) currently involved in CERN programmes are:[130]

  • Albania
  • Algeria
  • Argentina – 11 March 1992
  • Armenia – 25 March 1994
  • Australia – 1 November 1991
  • Azerbaijan – 3 December 1997
  • Belarus – 28 June 1994 (suspended as of March 2022 [129])
  • Bolivia
  • Brazil – 19 February 1990 & October 2006
  • Canada – 11 October 1996
  • Chile – 10 October 1991
  • China – 12 July 1991, 14 August 1997 & 17 February 2004
  • Colombia – 15 May 1993
  • Ecuador
  • Egypt – 16 January 2006
  • Georgia – 11 October 1996
  • Iceland – 11 September 1996
  • Iran – 5 July 2001
  • Jordan – 12 June 2003.[131] MoU with Jordan and SESAME, in preparation of a cooperation agreement signed in 2004.[132]
  • Lithuania – 9 November 2004
  • North Macedonia – 27 April 2009
  • Malta – 10 January 2008[133][134]
  • Mexico – 20 February 1998
  • Mongolia
  • Montenegro – 12 October 1990
  • Morocco – 14 April 1997
  • New Zealand – 4 December 2003
  • Peru – 23 February 1993
  • South Africa – 4 July 1992
  • South Korea – 25 October 2006
  • Vietnam

CERN also has scientific contacts with the following countries:[130]

  • Cuba
  • Ghana
  • Ireland
  • Latvia
  • Lebanon
  • Madagascar
  • Malaysia
  • Mozambique
  • Palestine
  • Philippines
  • Qatar
  • Rwanda
  • Singapore
  • Sri Lanka
  • Taiwan
  • Thailand
  • Tunisia
  • Uzbekistan

International research institutions, such as CERN, can aid in science diplomacy.[135]

Associated institutions

ESO and CERN have a cooperation agreement.[136]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it.  (October 2013)

A large number of institutes around the world are associated to CERN through current collaboration agreements and/or historical links.[137] The list below contains organizations represented as observers to the CERN Council, organizations to which CERN is an observer and organizations based on the CERN model:

Last edited 15 days ago by Kevloral

RELATED ARTICLES

Unhealthy Landscapes: Policy Recommendations on Land Use Change and Infectious Disease Emergence

Unhealthy Landscapes: Policy Recommendations on Land Use Change and Infectious Disease Emergence

The could possibly be the rabbit hole from Hell… Some of it seems like it could make sense but that’s how the work. I wonder what one would find if they dug deep – real deep and followed the money Trail on this subject???

Anthropogenic land use changes drive a range of infectious disease outbreaks and emergence events and modify the transmission of endemic infections. These drivers include agricultural encroachment, deforestation, road construction, dam building, irrigation, wetland modification, mining, the concentration or expansion of urban environments, coastal zone degradation, and other activities. These changes in turn cause a cascade of factors that exacerbate infectious disease emergence, such as forest fragmentation, disease introduction, pollution, poverty, and human migration. The Working Group on Land Use Change and Disease Emergence grew out of a special colloquium that convened international experts in infectious diseases, ecology, and environmental health to assess the current state of knowledge and to develop recommendations for addressing these environmental health challenges.

The group established a systems model approach and priority lists of infectious diseases affected by ecologic degradation. Policy-relevant levels of the model include:

specific health risk factors, landscape or habitat change, and institutional (economic and behavioral) levels.

The group recommended creating Centers of Excellence in Ecology and Health Research and Training, based at regional universities and/or research institutes with close links to the surrounding communities.

The centers’ objectives would be 3-fold:

a) to provide information to local communities about the links between environmental change and public health;

b) to facilitate fully interdisciplinary research from a variety of natural, social, and health sciences and train professionals who can conduct interdisciplinary research; and

c) to engage in science-based communication and assessment for policy making toward sustainable health and ecosystems.

Human-induced land use changes are the primary drivers of a range of infectious disease outbreaks and emergence events and also modifiers of the transmission of endemic infections (Patz et al. 2000).

These land use changes include:

  • deforestation
  • road construction
  • agricultural encroachment
  • dam building
  • irrigation
  • coastal zone degradation
  • wetland modification
  • mining
  • the concentration or expansion of urban environments
  • and other activities.

These changes in turn cause a cascade of factors that exacerbate infectious disease emergence, such as forest fragmentation, pathogen introduction, pollution, poverty, and human migration. These are important and complex issues that are understood only for a few diseases. For example, recent research has shown that forest fragmentation, urban sprawl, and biodiversity loss are linked to increased risk for Lyme disease in the northeastern United States (Schmidt and Ostfeld 2001). Expansion and changes in agricultural practices are intimately associated with the emergence of Nipah virus in Malaysia (Chua et al. 1999; Lam and Chua 2002), cryptosporidiosis in Europe and North America, and a range of food-borne illnesses globally (Rose et al. 2001). Road building is linked to the expansion of bushmeat consumption that may have played a key role in the early emergence of human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 (Wolfe et al. 2000), and simian foamy virus has been found in bushmeat hunters (Wolfe et al. 2004).

In recognition of the complexity of land use change and the risks and benefits to human health that it entails, a special colloquium titled “Unhealthy Landscapes: How Land Use Change Affects Health” was convened at the 2002 biennial meeting of the International Society for Ecosystem Health (6–11 June 2002, Washington, DC) to address this issue. The invited experts worked to establish consensus on the current state of science and identify key knowledge gaps underlying this issue. This article condenses the working group’s report and presents a new research and policy agenda for understanding land use change and its effects on human health. Specifically, we discuss land-use drivers or human activities that exacerbate infectious diseases; the land–water interface, common to many infectious disease life cycles; and conclusions and recommendations for research and training from the working group.

Land-Use Drivers of Infectious Disease Emergence

The emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) resulting from land use change can be entirely new to a specific location or host species. This may occur either from “spillover” or cross-species transmission or simply by extension of geographic range into new or changed habitats. More than 75% of human diseases are zoonotic and have a link to wildlife and domestic animals (Taylor et al. 2001).

The working group developed an extensive list of processes by which land use affects human health (specifically, infectious disease occurrence) and of other factors that contribute to this relationship: agricultural development, urbanization, deforestation, population movement, increasing population, introduction of novel species/pathogens, water and air pollution, biodiversity loss, habit fragmentation, road building, macro and micro climate changes, hydrological alteration, decline in public health infrastructure, animal-intensive systems, eutrophication, military conflict, monocropping, and erosion (ranked from highest to lowest public health impact by meeting participants). The four mechanisms that were felt to have the greatest impact on public health were changes to the physical environment; movement of populations, pathogens, and trade; agriculture; and urbanization. War and civil unrest were also mentioned as a potentially acute and cross-cutting driver. Infectious disease agents with the strongest documented or suspected links to land use change are listed in Table 1.

Changes to the biophysical environment.

Deforestation.

Rates of deforestation have grown exponentially since the beginning of the 20th century. Driven by rapidly increasing human population numbers, large swaths of species-rich tropical and temperate forests, as well as prairies, grasslands, and wetlands, have been converted to species-poor agricultural and ranching areas. The global rate of tropical deforestation continues at staggering levels, with nearly 2–3% of forests lost globally each year. Parallel with this habitat destruction is an exponential growth in human–wildlife interaction and conflict. This has resulted in exposure to new pathogens for humans, livestock, and wildlife (Wolfe et al. 2000). Deforestation and the processes that lead to it have many consequences for ecosystems. Deforestation decreases the overall habitat available for wildlife species. It also modifies the structure of environments, for example, by fragmenting habitats into smaller patches separated by agricultural activities or human populations. Increased “edge effect” (from a patchwork of varied land uses) can further promote interaction among pathogens, vectors, and hosts. This edge effect has been well documented for Lyme disease (Glass et al. 1995). Similarly, increased activity in forest habitats (through behavior or occupation) appears to be a major risk factor for leishmaniasis (Weigle et al. 1993). Evidence is mounting that deforestation and ecosystem changes have implications for the distribution of many other microorganisms and the health of human, domestic animal, and wildlife populations.

One example of the effects of land use on human health is particularly noteworthy. Deforestation, with subsequent changes in land use and human settlement patterns, has coincided with an upsurge of malaria and/or its vectors in Africa (Coluzzi 1984, 1994; Coluzzi et al. 1979), in Asia (Bunnag et al. 1979), and in Latin America (Tadei et al. 1998). When tropical forests are cleared for human activities, they are typically converted into agricultural or grazing lands. This process is usually exacerbated by construction of roads, causing erosion and allowing previously inaccessible areas to become colonized by people (Kalliola and Flores Paitán 1998). Cleared lands and culverts that collect rainwater are in some areas far more suitable for larvae of malaria-transmitting anopheline mosquitoes than are intact forests (Charlwood and Alecrim 1989; Jones 1951; Marques 1987).

Another example of the effects of land use on human health involves deforestation and noninfectious disease: the contamination of rivers with mercury. Soil erosion after deforestation adds significant mercury loads, which are found naturally in rainforest soils, to rivers. This has led to fish in the Amazon becoming hazardous to eat (Fostier et al. 2000; Veiga et al. 1994).

Habitat fragmentation.

This alters the composition of host species in an environment and can change the fundamental ecology of microorganisms. Because of the nature of food webs within ecosystems, organisms at higher trophic levels exist at a lower population density and are often quite sensitive to changes in food availability. The smaller patches left after fragmentation often do not have sufficient prey for top predators, resulting in local extinction of predator species and a subsequent increase in the density of their prey species. Logging and road building in Latin America have increased the incidence of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis (Desjeux 2001), which in some areas has resulted from an increase in the number of fox reservoirs and sandfly vectors that have adapted to the peridomestic environment (Patz et al. 2000). Foxes, however, are not very important reservoirs for leishmaniasis in Latin America (Courtenay et al. 2002), and a more important factor in the transmission cycle includes domestic dogs.

Ostfeld and Keesing (2000) have demonstrated that smaller fragments in North American forests have fewer small mammal predators. Results suggest that the probability that a tick will become infected depends on not only the density of white-footed mice but also the density of mice relative to that of other hosts in the community. Under this scenario, the density effect of white-footed mice, which are efficient reservoirs for Lyme disease, can be “diluted” by an increasing density of alternative hosts, which are less efficient at transmitting Lyme disease. These results suggest that increasing host diversity (species richness) may decrease the risk of disease through a “dilution effect” (Schmidt and Ostfeld 2001).

Extractive industries.

Gold mining is an extractive industry that damages local and regional environments and has adverse human health effects, because mercury is used to extract gold from riverbeds in the tropical forests. Not only does mercury accumulate in local fish populations, making them toxic to eat (Lebel et al. 1996, 1998), but mercury also suppresses the human immune system. Also, in gold-mining areas, more mosquito-breeding sites and increased malaria risk result from digging gem pits in the forest and from craters resulting from logging; broader disease spread occurs as populations disperse throughout the region (Silbergeld et al. 2002).

Movement of populations, pathogens, and trade.

The movement of humans, domestic animals, wildlife populations, and agricultural products through travel, trade, and translocations is a driver of infectious disease emergence globally. These sometimes inadvertent, sometimes deliberate movements of infectious disease and vectors (e.g., the introduction of smallpox and measles to the Americas by Spanish conquistadors) will continue to rise via continually expanding global travel and by development of Third World populations. Human introduction of pathogens, hosts, or materials into new areas has been termed “pathogen pollution” (Daszak et al. 2000).

Land use changes drive some of these introductions and migrations and also increase the vulnerability of habitats and populations to these introductions. Human migrations also drive land use changes that in turn drive infectious disease emergence. For example, in China’s Yunnan Province, an increase in livestock populations and migration has led to an increase in the incidence of schistosomiasis (Jiang et al. 1997). In Malaysia, a combination of deforestation, drought, and wildfires has led to alterations in the population movements and densities of flying foxes, large fruit bats known to be the reservoir for the newly emergent zoonosis Nipah virus (Chua et al. 1999). It is believed that the increased opportunity for contact between infected bats and pigs produced the outbreak of the disease in pigs, which then was transmitted to people in contact with infected pigs (Aziz et al. 2002).

Another example of human-induced animal movement on a much larger scale is the international pet trade. This movement of animals involves many countries and allows for the introduction of novel pathogens, such as monkeypox, with the potential to damage ecosystems and threaten human and animal health. Monkeypox was originally associated with bushmeat hunting of red colobus monkeys (Procolobus badius); after a localized epidemic emerged in humans, monkeypox persisted for four generations via human-to-human contact (Jezek et al. 1986).

Human movement also has significant implications for public health. Not only are travelers (tourists, businesspeople, and other workers) at risk of contracting communicable diseases when visiting tropical countries, but they also can act as vectors for delivering infectious diseases to another region or, in the case of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), potentially around the world. Refugees account for a significant number of human migrants, carrying diseases such as hepatitis B and tuberculosis and various parasites (Loutan et al. 1997). Because of their status, refugees become impoverished and are more exposed to a wide range of health risks. This is caused by the disruption of basic health services, inadequate food and medical care, and lack of clean water and sanitation (Toole and Waldman 1997). People who cross international boundaries, such as travelers, immigrants, and refugees, may be at increased risk of contracting infectious diseases, especially those who have no immunity because the disease agents are uncommon in their native countries. Immigrants may come from nations where diseases such as tuberculosis and malaria are endemic, and refugees may come from situations where crowding and malnutrition create ideal conditions for the spread of diseases such as cholera, shigellosis, malaria, and measles [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 1998].

Zoonoses.

The importance of zoonotic diseases should be emphasized. Zoonotic pathogens are the most significant cause of EIDs affecting humans, both in the proportion of EIDs that they cause and in the impact that they have. Some 1,415 species of infectious organisms are known to be pathogenic to people, with 61% of them being zoonotic. Of the emerging pathogens, 75% are zoonotic, and zoonotic pathogens are twice as likely to be associated with emerging diseases than are nonzoonotic pathogens (Taylor et al. 2001). More important, zoonotic pathogens cause a series of EIDs with high case fatality rates and no reliable cure, vaccine, or therapy (e.g., Ebola virus disease, Nipah virus disease, and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome). Zoonotic pathogens also cause diseases that have some of the highest incidence rates globally [e.g., acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)]. AIDS is a special case, because it is caused by a pathogen that jumped host from nonhuman primates and then evolved into a new virus. Thus, it is in origin a zoonotic organism (Hahn et al. 2000).

Because of the important role of zoonoses in current public health threats, wildlife and domestic animals play a key role in the process by providing a “zoonotic pool” from which previously unknown pathogens may emerge (Daszak et al. 2001). The influenza virus is an example, causing pandemics in humans after periodic exchange of genes among the viruses of wild and domestic birds, pigs, and humans. Fruit bats are involved in a high-profile group of EIDs that includes rabies and other lyssaviruses, Hendra virus and Menangle virus (Australia), and Nipah virus (Malaysia and Singapore), which has implications for further zoonotic disease emergence. A number of species are endemic to both remote oceanic islands and more populous suburban and rural human settlements; these may harbor enzootic and potentially zoonotic pathogens with an unknown potential for spillover (Daszak et al. 2000).

Thus, some of the current major infectious threats to human health are EIDs and reemerging infectious diseases, with a particular emphasis on zoonotic pathogens transferring hosts from wildlife and domestic animals. A common, defining theme for most EIDs (of humans, wildlife, domestic animals, and plants) is that they are driven to emerge by anthropogenic changes to the environment. Because threats to wildlife habitat are so extensive and pervading, many of the currently important human EIDs (e.g., AIDS, Nipah virus disease) are driven partly by human-induced changes to wildlife habitat such as encroachment and deforestation. This is essentially a process of natural selection in which anthropogenic environmental changes perturb the host–parasite dynamic equilibrium, leading to the expansion of those strains suited to the new environmental conditions and facilitating expansion of others into new host species (Daszak et al. 2001).

Agriculture.

Crop irrigation and breeding sites.

Agriculture occupies about half of the world’s land and uses more than two-thirds of the world’s fresh water (Horrigan et al. 2002). Agricultural development in many parts of the world has increased the need for crop irrigation, which reduces water availability for other uses and increases breeding sites for disease vectors. An increase in soil moisture associated with irrigation development in the southern Nile Delta after the construction of the Aswan High Dam has caused a rapid rise in the mosquito Culex pipiens and consequential increase in the arthropod-borne disease Bancroftian filariasis (Harb et al. 1993; Thompson et al. 1996). Onchocerciasis and trypanosomiasis are further examples of vector-borne parasitic diseases that may be triggered by changing land-use and water management patterns. In addition, large-scale use of pesticides has had deleterious effects on farm workers, including hormone disruption and immune suppression (Straube et al. 1999).

Food-borne diseases.

Once agricultural development has expanded and produced food sufficient to meet local need, the food products are exported to other nations, where they can pose a risk to human health. The increase in imported foods has resulted in a rise in food-borne illness in the United States. Strawberries from Mexico, raspberries from Guatemala, carrots from Peru, and coconut milk from Thailand have caused recent outbreaks. Food safety is an important factor in human health, because food-borne disease accounts for an estimated 76 million illnesses, 325,000 hospitalizations, and 5,200 deaths in the United States each year (CDC 2003). Other dangers include antibiotic-resistant organisms, such as Cyclospora, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and other pathogenic E. coli strains associated with hemolytic uremic syndrome in children (Dols et al. 2001).

Secondary effects.

Agricultural secondary effects need to be minimized, such as the emerging microbial resistance from antibiotics in animal waste that is included in farm runoff and the introduction of microdams for irrigation in Ethiopia that resulted in a 7-fold increase in malaria (Ghebreyesus et al. 1999).

Urbanization.

On a global basis, the proportion of people living in urban centers will increase to an unprecedented 65% by the year 2030 (Population Reference Bureau 1998). The 2000 census shows that 80% of the U.S. population now lives in metropolitan areas, with 30% living in cities of 5 million or more. The environmental issues posed by such large population centers have profound impacts on public health beyond the city limits (Knowlton 2001).

Alterations of ecosystems and natural resources contribute to the emergence and spread of infectious disease agents. Human encroachment of wildlife habitat has broadened the interface between wildlife and humans, increasing opportunities for both the emergence of novel infectious diseases in wildlife and their transmission to people. Rabies is an example of a zoonotic disease carried by animals that has become habituated to urban environments. Bats colonize buildings, skunks and raccoons scavenge human refuse, and in many countries feral dogs in the streets are common and the major source of human infection (Singh et al. 2001).

Infectious diseases can also pass from people to wildlife. Nonhuman primates have acquired measles from ecotourists (Wallis and Lee 1999). Also, drug resistance in gram-negative enteric bacteria of wild baboons living with limited human contact is significantly less common than in baboons living with human contact near urban or semiurban human settlements (Rolland et al. 1985).

The Land–Water Interface

Another major driver of infectious disease emergence results from the land–water interface. Land use changes often involve water projects or coastal marine systems in which nutrients from agricultural runoff can cause algal blooms.

Currently the seventh Cholera pandemic is spreading across Asia, Africa, and South America. In 1992, a new serogroup (Vibrio cholerae O139) appeared and has been responsible for epidemics in Asia (Colwell 1996). The seasonality of cholera epidemics may be linked to the seasonality of plankton (algal blooms) and the marine food chain. Studies using remote-sensing data of chlorophyll-containing phytoplankton have shown a correlation between cholera cases and sea surface temperatures in the Bay of Bengal. Interannual variability in cholera incidence in Bangladesh is also linked to the El Niño southern oscillation and regional temperature anomalies (Lobitz et al. 2000), and cholera prevalence has been associated with progressively stronger El Niño events spanning a 70-year period (Rodo et al. 2002). This observation on cholera incidence may represent an early health indicator of global climate change (Patz 2002).

Infectious diseases in marine mammals and sea turtles could serve as sentinels for human disease risk. Sea turtles worldwide are affected by fibropapillomatosis, a disease probably caused by one or several viruses and characterized by multiple epithelial tumors. Field studies support the observation that prevalence of this disease is associated with heavily polluted coastal areas, areas of high human density, agricultural runoff, and/or biotoxin-producing algae (Aguirre and Lutz, in press). This represents the breakdown of the land–water interface, to the point that several pathogens typical of terrestrial ecosystems have become established in the oceans. Toxoplasmosis in the endangered sea otter (Enhydra lutris) represents an example of pathogen pollution. Massive mortalities in pinnipeds and cetaceans reaching epidemics of tens of thousands are caused by four morbilliviruses evolving from the canine distemper virus (Aguirre et al. 2002). Additionally, overfishing has myriad ramifications for marine ecosystems and sustainable protein food sources for human populations.

Cryptosporidium, a protozoan that completes its life cycle within the intestine of mammals, sheds high numbers of infectious oocysts that are dispersed in feces. A recent study found that 13% of finished treated water still contained Cryptosporidium oocysts, indicating some passage of microorganisms from source to treated drinking water (LeChevallier and Norton 1995). The protozoan is highly prevalent in ruminants and is readily transmitted to humans. Thus, management of livestock contamination of watersheds is an important public health issue.

One example of how overexploitation of a natural water resource led to infectious disease is that of Lake Malawi in Africa. Overfishing in the lake reduced the population of snail-eating fish to such a level that snail populations erupted. Subsequently, schistosomiasis incidence and prevalence markedly rose after this ecologic imbalance (Madsen et al. 2001).

Recommendations from the Working Group

Conceptual model: bringing land use into public health policy.

The recommendations stemming from the international colloquium are highly relevant to the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA), a broad multiagency/foundation-sponsored scientific assessment of degraded ecosystem effects on human well-being. A conceptual framework of the MEA already provides an approach to optimize the contribution of ecosystems to human health (MEA 2003). This framework offers a mechanism to a) identify options that can better achieve human development and sustainable goals, b) better understand the trade-offs involved in environment-related decisions, and c) align response options at all scales, from the local to the global, where they can be most effective. This conceptual framework focuses on human well-being while also recognizing associated intrinsic values. Similar to the MEA, focus is particularly on the linkages between ecosystem services and human health. Workshop participants developed a conceptual model (Figure 1). Like the MEA, it assumes a dynamic interaction between humans and ecosystems that warrants a multiscale assessment (spatial and temporal).

By using this framework, policy makers may approach development and health at various levels. These levels include specific health risk factors, landscape or habitat change, and institutional (economic and behavioral) levels. For sound health policy, we must shift away from dealing primarily with specific risk factors and look “upstream” to underlying land-use determinants of infectious disease and ultimately the human behavior and established institutions that are detrimental to sustainable population health. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed a similar DPSEEA (driving forces, pressures, state, exposure, effect, actions) model that in a similar way describes the interlinkage between human health and different driving forces and environmental change (WHO 1997).

As such understanding increases, it will become more feasible to plan how to prevent new infectious disease emergence. Yet, because these are rare events, accurate predictions will remain daunting. It is already evident that inserting humans into complex ecosystems can lead to a variety of EIDs, but health outcomes depend on the economic circumstances of the human population. In poor and tropical communities, land use change can lead to major shifts in infectious disease patterns. For these situations, many conventional public health interventions can prevent several infectious diseases at relatively low cost. In rich and temperate-climate communities, the infectious disease shifts tend to be more disease specific, for example, in the case of Lyme disease and habitat fragmentation.

Research on deforestation and infectious disease.

Considering the deforestation that usually accompanies agricultural development, new conservation-oriented agriculture should be pursued. As discussed above, water project development and modern livestock management present major health disease risks. However, often the secondary unintended consequences can also wreak havoc; for example, a leaking dam may present greater risks than the reservoir itself. A distressingly large number of development projects not only have adverse effects on human health but also fail to attain their primary economic purposes in a sustainable manner.

Habitat fragmentation, whether caused by forest destruction, desertification, or land-use conversion, affects human and wildlife health and ecosystem processes. There is already much research undertaken by landscape ecologists on the consequences of habitat fragmentation for wildlife, especially larger animals. It would be important to study the effects of landscape fragmentation on public health hazards. Such research could entail three components. The first component consists of gathering baseline data, including using historical data where possible and beginning monitoring programs where necessary. Key data include identifying and quantifying the relevant pathogen load of wildlife, livestock, and human communities in fragmented landscapes. The goals of this data collection are, first, to identify key infectious diseases, both chronic and emergent or reemergent and, second, to document the consequences of fragmentation on relative abundance of wildlife and subsequent pathogen load. For example, the loss of large predators in fragmented habitats in the northeastern United States has led to a superabundance of rodent vectors for Lyme disease.

The second component of the research program would involve health impact modeling, primarily in three areas: a) estimating changes in the relative abundance of organisms, including infectious disease vectors, pathogens, and hosts; b) projecting potential vector or transmission shifts (e.g., should the Nipah virus shift to pulmonary as well as neurologic expression in humans as in swine); and c) projecting the impact of infectious diseases in a region on different geographic scales.

The results of these analyses, if successful, could support the third component of research: development of decision-support tools. Improved decisions on land-use policy could be made from a better understanding of costs and benefits to health and environmental decision makers. In all probability, however, they will be very location specific. For example, to construct an irrigation scheme in India would likely invite a malaria epidemic, whereas the same activity in sub-Saharan Africa may have little effect on malaria transmission. It is worth mentioning that costs and benefits could depend on the time course over which they are assessed. For example, some land-use changes can lead to short-term increases in transmission followed by longer-term decreases (e.g., irrigation and malaria in Sri Lanka) or vice versa (e.g., deforestation and cutaneous leishmaniasis in Latin America).

Policies to reduce microbial traffic/pathogen pollution.

In today’s interconnected world, it becomes very important to invest in the worldwide control of infectious diseases in developing countries, for example. It is also necessary to control transport to stem the flow from one place to the next.

Improved monitoring of trade is warranted in order to target infectious disease introductions. In the attempt to prevent the invasion of a pathogen (and drug-resistant organisms) into the vulnerable areas subject to land use changes, we need to pay greater attention to controls at the sources. We need to document and map these trades and investigate the vectors, the infectious diseases they harbor, and the populations they threaten. Risk assessment should guide surveillance and the development of test kits, targeting point-of-origin intervention to preempt these processes. Assessments must further include nonmarket costs (usually to the detriment of the environment and long-term sustainable health). We should communicate to both the exporters and consumers the need to make their trades clean, economically viable, and certified “clean and green” by an independent scientific agency at the source and/or destination. Additionally, strategies for screening travelers for pathogens that may be introduced to a region should be improved.

Centers of Excellence in Ecology and Health Research and Training.

One approach to developing the issues to which this article draws attention is the creation of a system of regional- or subregional-based interdisciplinary Centers of Excellence in Ecology and Health Research and Training. Based at regional universities and/or research institutes but with very close links to the surrounding communities, these centers would have the following objectives:

  • Providing information based on good science to local communities about the links between environmental change and public health, including the factors that contribute to specific infectious disease outbreaks. The new research agenda must gather information on household and community perspectives about proposals for the use of their land. These perspectives are key to assessing the cost/benefit of a proposed project. Training local professionals in environmental, agricultural, and health science issues, with a particular focus on granting degrees in a new “trans”-discipline linking health and the environment, would be emphasized.
  • Acting as centers of integrated analysis of infectious disease emergence, incorporating perspectives and expertise from a variety of natural, social, and health sciences. Research activities would range from taxonomy of pathogens and vectors to identifying best practices for influencing changes in human behavior to reduce ecosystem and health risks.
  • Incorporating a “health impact assessment” as an important cross-sectorial decision-making tool in overall development planning (parallel to an environmental impact assessment), along with the need for doing more research.
  • Equipping professionals with the ability to recommend policy toward maintaining ecosystem function and promoting sustainable public health for future generations. For example, the link between forest fragmentation and Lyme disease risk could lead to preserving more intact tracts of forest habitat by planning “cluster” housing schemes.
Implementing research and policy programs.

In selecting areas for research and the placement of centers of excellence, it is important to choose geographically representative, highly diverse areas around the world. In addition, research projects should take place in regions or landscapes that have both well characterized and less characterized patterns of infectious disease emergence or transmission for comparison purposes. Local health and environment professionals, who are in the best position to understand local priorities, should make the choices within each region for initial research areas and sites.

Addressing trade-offs among environment, health, and development.

There are some inherent trade-offs when considering land-use change and health. They are ethical values, environmental versus health choices, and disparities in knowledge and economic class. Trade-offs are between short-term benefit and long-term damage. For example, draining swamps may reduce vector-borne disease hazards but also destroy the wetland ecosystem and its inherent services (e.g., water storage, water filtration, biologic productivity, and habitats for fish and wildlife). Research can help decision making by identifying and assessing trade-offs in different land-use-change scenarios. Balancing the diverse needs of people, livestock, wildlife, and the ecosystem will always be a prominent feature.

Conclusions

When considering issues of land use and infectious disease emergence, the public needs to be attentive to entire ecosystems rather than simply their local environs. Although we may not live within a certain environment, its health may indirectly affect our own. For example, intact forests support complex ecosystems and provide essential habitats for species that are specialized to those flora and that may be relevant to our health. If these complex relationships are disrupted, there may be unforeseen impacts on human health, as the above examples clearly demonstrate.

Encouraging initiatives.

Three new initiatives are rising to the challenges presented above. The first initiative, the Consortium for Conservation Medicine (CCM), was formed recently to address these health challenges at the interface of ecology, wildlife health, and public health (Figure 2). At its core, conservation medicine champions the integration of techniques and partnering of scientists from diverse disciplines, particularly veterinary medicine, conservation biology, and public health. Through the consortium, therefore, these experts work with educators, policy makers, and conservation program managers to devise approaches that improve the health of both species and humans simultaneously [more information is available from the CCM website (CCM 2004)].

The second initiative, the new international journal EcoHealth, focuses on the integration of knowledge at the intersection of ecologic and health sciences. The journal provides a gathering place for research and reviews that integrate the diverse knowledge of ecology, health, and sustainability, whether scientific, medical, local, or traditional. The journal will encourage development and innovation in methods and practice that link ecology and health, and it will ensure clear and concise presentation to facilitate practical and policy application [more information is available from the EcoHealth website (EcoHealth 2004)].

The third initiative, the MEA, is an international work program designed to meet the needs of decision makers and the public for scientific information concerning the consequences of ecosystem change for human health and well-being and for options in responding to those changes. This assessment was launched by United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan in June 2001 and will help to meet the assessment needs of international environmental forums, such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Convention to Combat Desertification, the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, and the Convention on Migratory Species, as well as the needs of other users in the private sector and civil society [more information is available from the Millennium Assessment Working Groups website (Millennium Assessment Working Groups 2004)].

Challenges ahead.

As this working group of researchers continues to work on these topics, we face three challenges. First, strong trans-disciplinary research partnerships need to be forged to approach the research with the degree of creative thinking and comprehensiveness required by the nature of the problems. Second, if the work is to influence policy, the choice of questions and the research must be undertaken collaboratively with the local community and also through discussion with decision makers in government, industry, civil society, and other sectors. Third, investigators must consider how they can integrate their findings into the social, economic, and political dialogue on both the environment and health, globally and locally. As links between land use and health are elucidated, an informed public will more readily use such discoveries to better generate political will for effective change.

Figures and Tables

Figure 1 A systems model of land use change that affects public health. This model shows relationships between drivers of land use change and subsequent levels of environmental change and health consequences. Various levels of investigation and intervention are evident and range from specific risks factors and determinants of population vulnerability to larger institutional and economic activity.
Figure 2 The main elements converging under the Consortium for Conservation Medicine. Conservation medicine combines conservation biology, wildlife veterinary medicine, and public health. Adapted from Tabor (2002).

Table 1

SOURCE :

https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/doi/full/10.1289/ehp.6877

MEANWHILE…. CANADA

GoFundMe removes Convoy to Canberra campaign, refunds $179,000 to donors

Reference links below

Convoy to Canberra https://www.msn.com/en-au/news/australia/gofundme-removes-convoy-to-canberra-campaign-refunds-179000-to-donors/ar-AATzWNt

Canada Convoy https://abc7news.com/freedom-truck-convoy-ottowa-canada-protests-2022/11542456/

What a beautiful time to be alive! What a wonderful push for FREEDOM AND LIBERTY WE ARE WITNESSING AT THIS MOMENT!

I try to keep my opinion out of my blogs. BUT, this Texas Patriot can’t completely do that here. 😁 I love the United States, I love all my fellow citizens, non-citizens across the world regardless of color , creed/religious beliefs, vaccine status, views, political stance, etc. I can still love humanity and disagree with someone else’s position in life.

Just when you think you can’t hold up that long handled shovel in order to dig down the rabbit hole to continue digging up the truth or stand another second of reading the misleading, lying headlines or researching one more published journal written by yet ANOTHER! scientist or listen to one more video put out by another self-proclaimed someone who has ALL the truthful contacts in their pocket…………………

IT HAPPENED!!!!! IT HIT ME LIKE A TON OF BRICKS!

I much more prefer to base my reliance on action rather than words! It hit me like a ton bricks this morning! I’m not witnessing a “select” group of anyone! Whether it be Elites, red/blue politician’s, a chosen political party. This is not a representation of a respective race, a certain gender or group/organization. The resplendent representation is NOT that of those who are only concerned with their own wellbeing or a social group who are standing up for just one “particular” opinion!

IT OCCURRED TO ME….

It occurred to me as I was listening to horns honking by these Truckers that this was WAY MORE than I realized! I feel like I have been on this battlefield forever although I actually have not. Sometimes… after a while my tank runs dry, my emotions shut down and I will have days when it’s just so overwhelmingly depressing that I literally feel myself transcending into a world of my own in order to continue my research and cope with the findings. My very own O-zone. I don’t know a true Patriot that doesn’t feel this way from time to time. However, we go forward. We know God wins in the end. We know that the light ALWAYS outshines the darkness. It’s worth every second of it to us. Hard but worth it. With that said I WELCOME the times when something REALLY HITS ME in such a profound way! The moments… the AH-HA MOMENTS. Call it whatever… waking up a little bit more or discernment, clarity, revealing thought from God, a revelation out of the blue, a divulged moment, a spiritual growth moment, leveling up to another conscious (which I might add that “consciousness” in my opinion is not something we level up to by the way… We ALL were born with one… We ALL have a conscious AND WE ALL CHOOSE HOW TO USE IT). Being from Texas…. I’ll just keep it simple and call it “a brain fart

I am grateful. I proudly state that I believe that I am witnessing a sincere, unapologetic and profound rebellion of normal people who represent ALL OF HUMANITY! They are representing everyone from the everyday blue collar worker’s of the world, and the honest hard-working person in spite of how much money they bring home. Their convoy is fighting for the ones who don’t have a dime left over after paying their bills as well as those who have more than enough to live on and more than most of society.

They are courageously putting their own lives in an increasingly danger of being harmed physically, jailed, fired from their jobs, their own general wellbeing at risk. They are sacrificing the comforts, stability of their financial circumstances, the emotional, possibly physical wellbeing of their children, spouse’s /partners, and families. I am certain it is an extremely and stressful position to be in for ALL INVOLVED…

These trucking convoyers are ALSO representing the silent sleepers that are hidden in the darkness. They are fighting for the individual who is afraid to speak out for what they truly believe in their hearts but scared to admit for whatever reason. Those who have convinced themselves to not think outside the box they are comfortable living in and the individual who has been convinced by whomever to think, react or what not think and how not to react. They are representing those who can’t or won’t speak as a hole! Those who can’t because they are no longer here, those who are too fearful to speak because of fear of losing their jobs and the one’s who are TOO YOUNG and those who are too set in their ways to see things from a different perspective.

Humbled and Proud…

Thousands and thousands of true Patriots from across the world have been fighting in one form or another for such a long time trying to expose the truth as we have come see it based on endless hours of research on our own time for no other reason than to learn the truth about the world we live in and to expose any corruption that may exist in our world because we are hopelessly devoted to honestly and humanity. We are persistent people. We are also humbled when we are able to contribute to ANYONE we might be able to help for the greater good. We are people of spirit of service to others. This is I know to be fact. I thank each and every one of them and pray for a healthy and safe journey, wherever that journey may lead.

I BELIEVE IN PERSONAL FREEDOM! PERIOD! FREEDOM AND LIBERTY IS EXACTLY WHAT THESE BRAVE STAND TRUCKERS FOR AND I AM ON BOARD WITH WHATEVER IT TAKES TO STOP MANDATES! PERIOD!

THIS CONVOY WON’T BE STOPPED!

At least there is finally a group of STRONG MEN (and women) that are WILLING TO STAND UP FOR THE RIGHTS OF HUMANITY ACROSS THE WORLD!

The Ottawa, Canada Government is trying everything they can to stop the heroic #Truckers from intervening in their progressive propaganda.

MAYBE these Truckers can BRING THEIR CONVOY come to #Biden’s FailedBorder.

Maybe…. MAYBE the border will GET A LITTLE TRUE NEWS COVERAGE BY THE MAINSTREAM MEDIA ( #CNN #ABC #CBS #MSN and so on) if our heroic Truckers start HONKING UP AND DOWN THE DISTASTEROUS Fully Open BORDER. Ya think?

Listen to music of the honking horns below. ❤️I love it!! ❤️

https://gettr.com/post/psilor8869

The mayor of Canada’s capital declared a state of emergency Sunday and a former U.S. ambassador to Canada said groups in the U.S. must stop interfering in the domestic affairs of America’s neighbor as protesters opposed to COVID-19 restrictions continued to paralyze Ottawa’s downtown.

HA! Forget it! Not going to happen!

THEY ARE GOING FULL STEAM AHEAD!

Mayor Jim Watson said the declaration highlights the need for support from other jurisdictions and levels of government. It gives the city some additional powers around procurement and how it delivers services, which could help purchase equipment required by frontline workers and first responders.

Thousands of protesters descended in Ottawa again on the weekend, joining a hundred who remained since last weekend. Residents of Ottawa are furious at the nonstop blaring of horns, traffic disruption and harassment and fear no end is in sight after the police chief called it a “siege” that he could not manage.

The “freedom truck convoy” has attracted support from many U.S. Republicans including former President Donald Trump, who called Prime Minister Justin Trudeau a “far left lunatic” who has “destroyed Canada with insane Covid mandates.”

“Canada US relations used to be mainly about solving technical issues. Today Canada is, unfortunately, experiencing radical US politicians involving themselves in Canadian domestic issues. Trump and his followers are a threat not just to the US but to all democracies,” Bruce Heyman, a former U.S. ambassador under President Barack Obama, tweeted.

Heyman said “under no circumstances should any group in the USA fund disruptive activities in Canada. Period. Full stop.”

After crowdfunding site GoFundMe said it would refund or redirect to charities the vast majority of the millions raised by demonstrators protesting in the Canadian capital, prominent U.S. Republicans like Florida Gov. Ron DeSantis complained.

But GoFundMe had already changed its mind and said it would be issuing refunds to all. The site said it cut off funding for the organizers because it had determined the effort violated the site’s terms of service due to unlawful activity.

Ontario Premier Doug Ford has called it an occupation.

https://abc7news.com/freedom-truck-convoy-ottowa-canada-protests-2022/11542456/

RELATED: Freedom convoy 2022: Truckers protest COVID vaccine mandate to cross Canada-US border

Texas Attorney General Ken Paxon tweeted: “Patriotic Texans donated to Canadian truckers’ worthy cause.” and Texas Sen. Ted Cruz said on Fox News “government doesn’t have the right to force you to comply to their arbitrary mandates.”

“For some senior American politicians, patriotism means renting a mob to put a G-7 capital under siege,” tweeted Gerald Butts, a former senior adviser to Trudeau.

In Canada’s largest city, Toronto, police controlled and later ended a much smaller protest by setting up road blocks and preventing any trucks or cars from getting near the provincial legislature. Police also moved in to clear a key intersection in the city.

Many Canadians have been outraged over the crude behavior of the demonstrators. Some protesters set fireworks off on the grounds of the National War Memorial late Friday. A number have carried signs and flags with swastikas last weekend and compared vaccine mandates to fascism.

Protesters have said they won’t leave until all mandates and COVID-19 restrictions are gone. They are also calling for the removal of Trudeau’s government, though it is responsible for few of the measures, most of which were put in place by provincial governments.

Freedom truck convoy 2022: Ottawa declares state of emergency over COVID protests

TORONTO — The mayor of Canada’s capital declared a state of emergency Sunday and a former U.S. ambassador to Canada said groups in the U.S. must stop interfering in the domestic affairs of America’s neighbor as protesters opposed to COVID-19 restrictions continued to paralyze Ottawa’s downtown.

Mayor Jim Watson said the declaration highlights the need for support from other jurisdictions and levels of government. It gives the city some additional powers around procurement and how it delivers services, which could help purchase equipment required by frontline workers and first responders.

Thousands of protesters descended in Ottawa again on the weekend, joining a hundred who remained since last weekend. Residents of Ottawa are furious at the nonstop blaring of horns, traffic disruption and harassment and fear no end is in sight after the police chief called it a “siege” that he could not manage.

The “freedom truck convoy” has attracted support from many U.S. Republicans including former President Donald Trump, who called Prime Minister Justin Trudeau a “far left lunatic” who has “destroyed Canada with insane Covid mandates.”

“Canada US relations used to be mainly about solving technical issues. Today Canada is, unfortunately, experiencing radical US politicians involving themselves in Canadian domestic issues. Trump and his followers are a threat not just to the US but to all democracies,” Bruce Heyman, a former U.S. ambassador under President Barack Obama, tweeted.

Heyman said “under no circumstances should any group in the USA fund disruptive activities in Canada. Period. Full stop.”

After crowdfunding site GoFundMe said it would refund or redirect to charities the vast majority of the millions raised by demonstrators protesting in the Canadian capital, prominent U.S. Republicans like Florida Gov. Ron DeSantis complained.

But GoFundMe had already changed its mind and said it would be issuing refunds to all. The site said it cut off funding for the organizers because it had determined the effort violated the site’s terms of service due to unlawful activity.

Ontario Premier Doug Ford has called it an occupation. https://abc7news.com/freedom-truck-convoy-ottowa-canada-protests-2022/11542456/

RELATED: Freedom convoy 2022: Truckers protest COVID vaccine mandate to cross Canada-US border

ATTORNEY THOMAS RENZ DROPS BOMBS! HOSPITAL ADMINISTRATORS KILLING FOR CASH, THREATENING DOCS THE STEW PETERS SHOW

ATTORNEY THOMAS RENZ DROPS BOMBS! HOSPITAL ADMINISTRATORS KILLING FOR CASH, THREATENING DOCS THE STEW PETERS SHOW

EXCLUSIVE! “They get more money when they’re on Remdesivir, they get more money when they’re on the ventilator, and so they let them lay there and die and you can’t watch”.

Attorney Thomas Renz is taking on Tony Fauci, and anyone else that pushes these potentially deadly injections, refuses viable treatment to patients diagnosed with “COVID”.

Click Photo To Watch Interview

Renz Law
— Read on renz-law.com/

STUDY: Areas with mask mandates seeing highest number of covid deaths

10/01/2021 / By Ethan Huff / Comments

STUDY: Areas with mask mandates seeing highest number of covid deaths
Child wearing a mask

In every place where wearing a mask is “required” by the government, the number of people dying with the Wuhan coronavirus (Covid-19) is substantially higher compared to places where people have returned back to living their normal, pre-covid lives.

In Oregon, for instance, where wearing a mask is something of a fetish, the number of “active cases” of the Chinese Virus is skyrocketing. Since August 24 when Gov. Kate Brown reinstated a statewide mask mandate, Wuhan Flu cases have soared by 73 percent.

“Cases and hospitalizations are at a record high,” Brown admitted in a statement while also praising masks for being really progressive.

“Masks are a quick and simple tool we can immediately deploy to protect ourselves and our families, and quickly help stop further spread of COVID-19,” she added without providing a shred of proof to back these claims.

The situation is similar in South Korea, another mask haven. Despite 99 percent mask compliance, Fauci Flu cases in the Asian country have seen record highs for the past three months straight.

Singapore is also seeing a spike in new cases thanks to its mask mandate. That country is on day 527 of a continuous mask mandate and 82 percent of its population is now “fully vaccinated,” and yet sicknesses and deaths are higher than they have ever been since the beginning of the plandemic.

“Pretty incredible feat of media gaslighting that no one is asking politicians and experts how they can continue justifying mandates,” tweeted a person who shared these and other statistics for the world to see.

Unmasked Orange County is doing better than masked Los Angeles County

In the United States, Minnesota, of all places, is currently seeing the most new cases emerge compared to any other state – including Florida, which we were all told would be a giant morgue thanks to Gov. Ron DeSantis’ pro-freedom policies.

It turns out that DeSantis was right, and whoever runs Minnesota is wrong. Freedom is the best policy, and it just so happens that freedom saves more lives than tyranny ever has.

Orange County, Calif., is another shining example of how freedom is the best way to go. While next-door Los Angeles County brought back its mask mandates and is now pushing vaccine passports, it is seeing much more sickness, misery, and death compared to unmasked Orange County.

“I don’t know if I’ll ever get over that LA mandates masks 2+ months ago, neighboring Orange County didn’t mandate masks, yet the county without a mandate did better and followed the same trajectory,” the same Twitter user wrote about this comparison.

“If sanity & science still existed, we’d be done pretending masks matter.”

Arizona and Nevada offer another side-by-side look at the benefits of freedom over fascism. Fully open and mask-free Arizona, it turns out, is far outperforming the masked Branch Covidian land of Nevada.

And finally, Denmark. The European country recently ended all covid restrictions and returned completely back to normal, and since that time covid itself has all but disappeared.

Once again, freedom is the best remedy. Freedom makes people healthier, happier and more resistant to diseases that spread through the air, as well as those that spread through the government and the mainstream media.

“None of this is to say that mask mandates have no effect,” writes Selwyn Duke for The New American.

“In fact, studies have found that masks become as pathogen-laden Petri dishes on people’s faces, can restrict oxygen intake and induce dangerously high carbon dioxide levels in people’s bloodstreams, may introduce unhealthful plastic microparticles into wearer’s systems, can cause skin problems, may exacerbate anxiety and breathing difficulties in children, and can lead to altered facial development in kids due to continuous mouth-breathing.”

Chinese Virus tyranny is the real pandemic. To keep up with the latest, visit Fascism.news.

Sources for this article include:

TheNewAmerican.com

NaturalNews.com

Tags;

badhealth, badmedicine, COVID, deaths, deception, genocide, health freedom, infections, insanity, mask mandates, medical fascism, Medical Tyranny, outbreak, Plandemic, pro-freedom policies, research, Tyranny

Mild Covid-19 Induces Antibody Protection That Could Last a Lifetime: US Researchers

US researchers have found that people who have had mild illness due to Covid-19, go on to develop antibody-producing immune cells that can last for a lifetime and give them protection against the virus.

Updated: May 26, 2021, 11:16 IST

US researchers have found that people who have had mild illness due to Covid-19, go on to develop antibody-producing immune cells that can last for a lifetime and give them protection against the virus. Researchers at Washington University in St. Louis, US, found that during a viral infection, antibody-producing immune cells rapidly multiply and circulate in the blood, driving antibody levels sky-high.

Once the infection is resolved, most such cells die off, and blood antibody levels drop.

However, a small population of antibody-producing cells, called long-lived plasma cells, migrate to the bone marrow and settle in, where they continually secrete low levels of antibodies into the bloodstream to help guard against another encounter with the virus.

“We found antibody-producing cells in people 11 months after the first symptoms. These cells will live and produce antibodies for the rest of people’s lives. That’s strong evidence for long-lasting immunity,” said Ali Ellebedy, Associate Professor at the varsity’s School of Medicine. The findings of the small study are published in the journal Nature.

For the study, the team involved 77 participants whose antibody levels in blood samples were assessed at three-month intervals starting about a month after initial infection. The team obtained bone marrow from 18 of the participants seven or eight months after their initial infections.

For comparison, the scientists also obtained bone marrow from 11 people who had never had Covid-19.

Of the bone marrow samples, 15 contained antibody-producing cells specifically targeting the virus that causes Covid-19. Such cells could still be found four months later in the five people who came back to provide a second bone-marrow sample.

None of the 11 people who had never had Covid-19 had such antibody-producing cells in their bone marrow.

“Mild infection by Covid-19 will also trigger the immune response as it will lead to immune stimulation both cell mediated and antibody linked creating lasting immunity. In fact, this is the principle of vaccination that triggers the immune response by stimulating the antigen induced reaction giving rise to immunity of the body.

“It has also been shown that the reinfection rate of people already having mild infection is only two per cent which is very less,” Praveen Gupta, director and head, neurology, Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Gurugram told IANS.

“Based on this fact the principle of herd immunity was developed, if a large number of people will get a mild clinical infection that will lead to the development of herd immunity,” he added.

— Read on www.news18.com/news/buzz/mild-covid-19-induces-antibody-protection-that-could-last-a-lifetime-us-researchers-3777662.html

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